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Functional Role of Cardiovascular Exosomes in Myocardial Injury and Atherosclerosis

  • Maarten Vanhaverbeke
  • Diane Gal
  • Paul HolvoetEmail author
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 998)

Abstract

Extracellular vesicles are now widely recognized as key players in the prevention, repair or progression of cardiovascular disease. Here we first focus on the functional roles of extracellular vesicles in the cross-talk between cardiomyocytes and endothelial cells, important for maintaining normal development and function of the heart. Second, we discuss the role of extracellular vesicles secreted by embryonic and non-embryonic stem cells in repairing cardiomyocyte function and in restoring angiogenic potential after myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury. Third, we focus on the role of extracellular vesicles in Endothelial to Mesenchymal Transition (EndMT), leading to conversion of endothelial cells to fibroblasts, secretion of extracellular proteins collagen and fibronectin, and fibrosis. Finally, we discuss the role of extracellular vesicles secreted under stress by endothelial cells, macrophages and vascular smooth muscle cells in atherosclerosis. On aggregate, the reviewed preclinical studies present evidence that extracellular vesicles secreted by cardiomyocytes, fibroblasts, endothelial cells, immune-system-related cells, vascular smooth muscle cells and stem cells play an important role in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease. However, further studies are needed to gain better insight into the mechanisms used to select specific content to transfer to specific target cells, and to induce or repress signaling pathways in their target cells.

Keywords

Exosomes Cardiac Vascular tissue Stem cells miRs 

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Cardiovascular SciencesKU LeuvenLeuvenBelgium

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