Shift of Mode: From a Mass Line Approach to a Bureaucratic Approach
As discussed earlier, the status of law in a society is significant as it shows whether the society has reached rule of law or rule by law. There is always a three-stage argument that societies have to go through: rule by man, rule by law and rule of law in order. The Fifteenth Chinese Communist Party Congress, convened in September 1997 in Beijing, proposed for the first time that the Party would give its highest priority to the rule of law. The second plenary session of the Ninth National People’s Congress, held in March 1999, declared that a new constitutional amendment would be made to give constitutional legitimacy to the “rule of law”. Meanwhile, former President Jiang Zemin and other major leaders argued that the rule of law is a key to the building of Chinese democracy. It means that Chinese government changed mode of anticorruption from mass line approach to bureaucratic approach gradually.