Corruption and Anticorruption in China
Corruption has been a persistent feature of human history for thousands of years (Lo 1993:1). This is why Bardhan (1997:1320) calls it “an ancient problem.” From the Alps to the Yangtze River, from biblical time to the post-modern era, it is epidemic in most societies. As Zou (2000:323) claims that “corruption is a universal phenomenon. Where there are human beings, there is corruption in different forms and different degrees.” Therefore, “the subject has long been of interest to philosophers, historians, and social scientists” (Gillespie and Okruhlik 1991:77). Osborne (1997) documents that throughout human history, from ancient Greece or William Shakespeare in the West to Confucianism and Hinduism in the East, one can find repeated expressions of distaste by scholars and ordinary people for corruption and dishonesty.