All-Optical Fiber-Cantilever Beam-Deflection Magnetometer: Detection of Low Magnetic Field and Magnetization Measurement

  • Partha Roy ChaudhuriEmail author
  • Somarpita Pradhan
Conference paper
Part of the Springer Proceedings in Physics book series (SPPHY, volume 194)


All-optical fiber-cantilever beam deflection configuration using an optimized composition of cobalt doped nickel ferrite nanoparticles coated single-mode optical fiber cantilevers is demonstrated. Initially, a fiber-double-slit interferometer arrangement using coated fiber-cantilever-deflection is devised to detect the surrounding magnetic field by precisely measuring the changes in interference fringe-width. A theoretical platform is developed to model the fiber-cantilever deflection which in turn predicts magnetization value of the probe sample. In order to explore higher sensitivity, etched single-mode fiber cantilever is incorporated in double-slit arrangement and a marked improvement is achieved. Next, we refined the experiment by tracking the amplitude-modulation of propagating light through fiber-to-fiber coupling cantilever deflection-transmission arrangement which showed increased sensitivity further. In a series of experiments starting with single cantilever transmission technique, we ended up with a model of cascaded cantilevers to sense very low order (~1 mT) magnetic field. Developed theoretical model fairly predicts experimentally obtained results, in particular, the magnetization of the probe sample. We demonstrate that the scheme is capable of reproducing magnetization data obtained from high precision SQUID measurement. Finally, Sagnac loop assisted cascaded cantilever configuration is realized experimentally to establish the repeatability and more stable response of cascaded cantilever scheme. All our experimental configurations are all-optical with minimum system complexities. These results are new and will provide guideline and understanding towards designing fiber-optic low-magnetic field sensors ~mT.



The authors sincerely acknowledge BRNS, Govt. of India for the financial support to carry out this research.


  1. 1.
    Dai, Y., Yang, M., Xu, G., and Yuan, Y., “Magnetic field sensor based on fiber Bragg grating with a spiral microgroove ablated by femtosecond laser,’’ Opt. Expr. 21, 17386–17391 (2013).Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Lenz, J., and Edelstein, A. S., “Magnetic sensors and their applications,’’ IEEE Sens. 6, 631–649 (2006).Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Koch, R. et al., “Perpendicular magnetic fields in cantilever beam magnetometry,’’ J. Appl. Phys. 96, 2773–2778 (2004).Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Duc, T. C., et. al., “Piezoresistive cantilever beam for force sensing in two dimensions,’’ IEEE Sens. 7, 96–104 (2007).Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Kumar, A., et. al., “Cantilever based MEMS pressure sensor using different piezoelectric materials: a comparative study,’’ IJEDR 2, 4022–4026 (2014).Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Dung, N. K., and Tuan, N. H., “The effect of cobalt substitution on structure and magnetic properties of nickel ferrite,’’ VNU Journal of Science, Mathematics-Physics 25, 153–159 (2009).Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Sedlar, M. et al, “Optical fiber magnetic field sensors using magnetostrictive jackets,’’ Sens. Actu. A 84, 297–302 (2000).Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Sedlar, M. et al, “Preparation of cobalt nickel ferrite films on optical fibers by dip-coating”,Ceram. Int. 21, 21–27 (1995).Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Pradhan, S., and Chaudhuri, P. R., “Experimental demonstration of all-optical weak magnetic field detection using beam-deflection of single-mode fiber coated with cobalt-doped nickel ferrite nanoparticles,’’ Appl. Opt. 54, 6269–6276 (2015).Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Yang, M., Dai, J., Zhou, C., and Jiang, D., “Optical fiber magnetic field sensors with TbDyFe magnetostrictive thin films as sensing materials,’’ Opt. Expr. 17, 20777–20782 (2009).Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Kumar, al., “Optimize etching based single mode fiber optic temperature sensor’’ Int. J. Eng. Res. Appl. 4, 4–8 (2014).Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Weber, M., Koch, R., and Rieder, K. H., “UHV Cantilever Beam Technique for Quantitative Measurements of Magnetization, Magnetostriction, and Intrinsic Stress of Ultrathin Magnetic Films,’’ Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 1166–1169 (1994).Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Adhikari, al., “The cantilever beam magnetometer: a simple tool for characterization” Am. J. Phys. 80, 225–231 (2012).Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Pradhan S. and Chaudhuri P. R., “Performance of Low Magnetic Field detection using Double Cantilever Fiber-Beam Deflection-Transmission Configuration,” JSAP-OSA Joint Symposia, Sept. 13–16, 2015.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Ghatak. A., and Thyagarajan, K., “Introduction to Fiber Optics,’’ Cambridge University Press, Reprint 2011.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Indian Institute of Technology KharagpurKharagpurIndia

Personalised recommendations