Advertisement

Biofuels pp 157-175 | Cite as

Microalgae Based Biofuel: Challenges and Opportunities

  • Richa Katiyar
  • Amit Kumar
  • B. R. GurjarEmail author
Chapter
Part of the Green Energy and Technology book series (GREEN)

Abstract

The growing demand of conventional fuels and its limited reservoir has ignited attention of scientific communities to produce alternative fuels including biofuels from renewable sources. The renewable sources include wood, plants, agro-waste, fruit pulps and other waste materials with nutrients. The use of biomass based bioenergy or biofuel is gaining public attention due to their environment friendly aspects. Earlier the biofuel was produced from food and non food crops which puts pressure on land resource. To circumvent such negative impacts, scientific communities have explored the use of microalgae for production of biofuels. Microalgae can produce high oil (more than 300 times) than other existing resources such as terrestrial plants. The added advantage of microalgae also includes the use of non cultivable soil and waste water for its cultivation which renders the process more efficient from cost perspective. Thus, the usage of microalgae for biofuel production doesn’t affect the agriculture land resource and drinking water balance in the environment. Using microalgae based biofuel has been shown to be a carbon neutral process because the carbon generated in the fuel combustion is almost neutralized by the carbon consumption during micro-algal growth. Moreover, the different species of microalgae produce bio-sustainable novel products which can be used as raw materials in a number of industries like energy, power generation, feed and food industry and cosmetics. In this way, the multi usage of microalgae can contribute toward cost effectiveness with development of nation in terms of health, industry establishment and job creation.

Graphical Abstract

Keywords

Carbon Bioenergy Biofuel Renewable energy Environment 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors thank the Ministry of Human Resources and Development, New Delhi for providing funds for the research and Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee for providing resources and platform for this study.

References

  1. 1.
    Abreu AP, Fernandes B, Vicente AA, Teixeira J, Dragone G (2012) Mixotrophic cultivation of Chlorella vulgaris using industrial dairy waste as organic carbon source. Bioresour Technol 118:61–66CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Amini M, Younesi H, Zinatizadeh Lorestani AA, Najafpour G (2013) Determination of optimum conditions for dairy wastewater treatment in UAASB reactor for removal of nutrients. Bioresour Technol 145:71–79CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Andrade LR, Salgado LT, Farina M, Pereira MS, Mourao PAS, Amado-Filho GM (2004) Ultrastructure of acidic polysaccharides from the cell walls of brown algae. J Struct Biol 145:216–225CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Arora N, Patel A, Pruthi PA, Pruthi V (2016) Boosting TAG accumulation with improved biodiesel production from novel oleaginous microalgae Scenedesmus sp. IITRIND2 utilizing waste sugarcane bagasse aqueous extract (SBAE). Appl Biochem Biotechnol (Accepted)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Banerjee A, Sharma R, Chisti Y, Banerjee UC (2002) Botryococcusbraunii: a renewable source of hydrocarbons and other chemicals. J Crit Rev Biotechnol 22:245–279CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Bligh EG, Dyer WJ (1959) A rapid method of total lipid extraction and purification. Biochem Physiol 8:911–917Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Benemann J (2012) Photosynthetic efficiency and biomass productivity of microalgae mass cultures John Benemann. Algae biomass summit, San Diego, CA, pp 1–29. http://algaebiomass.org/wp-content/gallery/2012-algae-biomass-summit/2010/06/T1_Wed_1030_JBenemann.pdf. Accessed 08 Nov 2016
  8. 8.
    Brennan L, Owende P (2010) Biofuels from microalgae: a review of technologies for production, processing, and extractions of biofuels and co-products. Renew Sustain Energy Rev 14:557–577Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Brown MR, Dunstan GA, Norwood SJ, Miller KA (1996) Effects of harvested stage and light on the biochemical composition of the diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana. J Phycol 32:64–73CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Buchele M, Zimba P (2012) A report on—the downside of using algae as a biofuel. University of TexasGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Cardozo KH, Guaratini T, Barros MP, Falcao VR, Tonon AP, Lopesm NP (2007) Metabolites from algae with economical impact. J Compar Biochem Physiol C Toxicol Pharmacol 146:60–78CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Carrapiso AI, Garcıa C (2000) Development in lipid analysis: some new extraction techniques and in situ transesterification. Lipids 11:1167–1177CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Cesar ADS, Batalha MO (2010) Biodiesel production from castor oil in Brazil: a difficult reality. Energy Policy 38:4031–4039CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Cheng Y, Zhou WG, Gao CF, Lan K, Gao Y, Wu QY (2009) Biodiesel production from Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus Tuberosus L.) tuber by heterotrophic microalgae Chlorella protothecoides. J Chem Technol Biotechnol 84:777–781CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Christi Y (2007) Biodiesel from microalgae. J Biotechnol Adv 25:294–306CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Chisti Y (2008) Response to reijnders: do biofuels from microalgae beat biofuels from terrestrial plants. Trends Biotechnol 26(7):351–352CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Chisti Y (2008) Do biofuels from microalgae beat biofuels from terrestrial plants. Trends Biotechnol 26(7):351–352CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Clarens AF, Resurreccion EP, White MA, Colosi LM (2010) Environmental life cycle comparison of algae to other bioenergy feedstocks. Environ Sci Technol 44:1813–1819CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Das P, Aziz SS, Obbard JP (2011) Two phase microalgae growth in the open system for enhanced lipid productivity. Renew Energy 36:2524–2528CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Das P, Lei W, Aziz SS, Obbard JP (2011) Enhanced algae growth in both phototrophic and mixotrophic culture under blue light. Bioresour Technol 102:3883–3887CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Dembitsky VM, Srebnik M (2002) Natural halogenated fatty acids: their analogues and derivatives. J Progress Lipid Res 41:315–367CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Demirbas A (2009) Progress and recent trends in biodiesel fuels. J Energy Convers Manag 50:14–34CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Demirbas A, Demirbas MF (2010) Biodiesel from algae. In: Algae energy book, chapter 6, pp 139–157Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Demirbas A, Demirbas MF (2011) Importance of algae oil as a source of biodiesel. Energy Convers Manag 52:163–170CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Dos Santos MD, Guaratini T, Lopes JLC, Colepicolo P, Lopes NP (2005) Plant cell and microalgae culture. In: Modern biotechnology in medicinal chemistry and industry. Research signpost, Kerala, IndiaGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Duncan GR (2011) Beyond food versus fuel. Nature 474:6–8Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Ebrahimian A, Kariminia HR, Vosoughi M (2014) Lipid production in mixotrophic cultivation of Chlorella vulgaris in a mixture of primary and secondary municipal wastewater. Renewable Energy 71:502–508Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Folch J, Lees M Sloane, Stanley GH (1957) A simple method for the isolation and purification of total lipids from animal tissues. Biol Chem 226:497–509Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Gahukar RT (2012) New sources of feed stocks for biofuels production: Indian perspectives. Petroleum Technol Altern Fuels 3(3):24–28Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Gouveia L, Oliveira AC (2009) Microalgae as a raw material for biofuels production. J Ind Microbiol Biotechnol 36:269–274CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Greenwell HC, Laurens LML, Shields RJ, Lovitt RW, Flynn KJ (2010) Placing microalgae on the biofuels priority list: a review of the technological challenges. J R Soc Interface 7(46):703–726CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Grobbelaar JU (2000) Physiological and technological considerations for optimising mass algal cultures. J Appl Phycol 12(3–5):201–206CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Gunaseelan NV (1997) Anaerobic digestion of biomass for methane production: a review. Biomass Bioenergy 13(1–2):83–114CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Gustavo BL, Abdelaziz EMA, Hallenbeck CP (2013) Algal biofuels: challenges and opportunities. Bioresour Technol 145:134–141CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Haluzan N (2010) Biofuels from algae advantages and disadvantages. http://www.renewablesinfo.com/drawbacks_and_benefits/biofuels_from_algae_advantages_and_disadvantages.html. Accessed 05 Nov 2016
  36. 36.
    Hasan R (2014) Bioremediation of swine wastewater and biofuel potential by using Chlorella vulgaris, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, and Chlamydomonas debaryana. J Petroleum Environ Biotechnol 5(3):175–180CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Hashemi NM, Tabatabaei M, Mansourpanah Y, Khatami FM, Javani A (2011) Upstream and downstream strategies to economize biodiesel production. Bioresour Technol 102:461–468CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Hena S, Fatimah S, Tabassum S (2015) Cultivation of algae consortium in a dairy farm wastewater for biodiesel production. Water Resour Indus 10:1–14CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Hildebrand M, Davis AK, Smith RS, Traller CJ, Abbriano R (2012) A review: the place of diatoms in the biofuels industry. Biofuels 3:221–240CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Hoekema S, Douma RD, Janssen M, Tramper J, Wijffles RH (2002) A pneumatically agitated flat panel photo bioreactor with gas recirculation: anaerobic photohetrotrophic cultivation of a purple non sulfur bacterium. Int J Hydrogen Energy 27:1228–1331CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Jadhav CS (2009) Demand for biodiesel will see a steady rise. Biospectrum 54–55Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Jae-Yon L, Chan Y, So-Young J, Chi-Yong A, Hee-Mock O (2010) Comparison of several methods for effective lipid extraction from microalgae. Bioresour Technol 101:S75–S77CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Karen M, Dougall M, McNichol J, McGinn JP, O’Leary SJB, Melanson JE (2011) Triacylglycerol profiling of microalgae strains for Biofuel feedstock by liquid chromatography–high-resolution mass spectrometry. J Bioanal Chem 401:2609–2616CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Katiyar R, Gurjar BR, Biswas S, Pruthi V, Kumar N, Kumar P (2016) Microalgae: an emerging source of energy based bio-products and a solution for environmental issues. Renew Sustain Energy Rev (accepted)Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Liang YN, Sarkany N, Cui Y (2009) Biomass and lipid productivities of Chlorella vulgaris under autotrophic, heterotrophic and mixotrophic growth conditions. Biotechnol Lett 31:1043–1049CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Li Q, Du W, Liu D (2008) Perspectives of microbial oils for biodiesel production. J Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 80:749–756CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Malla FA, Khan SA, Sharma R, Gupta GK, Abraham G (2015) Phycoremediation potential of Chlorella minutissima on primary and tertiary treated wastewater for nutrient removal and biodiesel production. Ecol Eng 75:343–349CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Mata Teresa M, Antonio Martins A, Nidia Caetano S (2010) A review: microalgae for biodiesel production and other applications. Renew Sustain Energy Rev 14:217–232CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Mandal S, Mallick N (2009) Microalga Scenedesmusobliquus as a potential source for biodiesel production. J Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 84:281–291CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Mayer AMS, Lehmann VKB (2001) Marine pharmacology in 1999: antitumor and cytotoxic compounds. J Anticancer Res 21:2489–2500Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Metzger P, Largeau C (2005) Botryococcus braunii: a rich source for hydrocarbons and related ether lipids. J Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 66:486–496CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Miao XL, Wu QY (2004) High yield bio-oil production from fast pyrolysis by metabolic controlling of Chlorella protothecoides. J Biotechnol 110:85–93CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Moazami N, Ashori A, Ranjbar R, Tangestani M, Eghtesadi R, Nejad AS (2012) Large-scale biodiesel production using microalgae biomass of nannochloropsis. Biomass Bioenergy 39:449–453CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Mohan V (2013) Cultivable land continues to shrink, The Times of India. Aug 16, 2013, p 7Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Mubaraka M, Shaijaa A, Suchithrab TV (2015) A review—the extraction of lipid from microalgae for biodiesel production. Algal Res 7:117–123CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Packer M (2009) Algal capture of carbon dioxide; biomass generation as a tool for greenhouse gas mitigation with reference to New Zealand energy strategy and policy. Energy Policy 37(9):3428–3437CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Pandey A, Lee JD, Chisti Y (2014) Biofuel from algae, chapter-8, algae oils as fuel, pp 1–4Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Park WK, Moon M, Kwak MS, Jeon S, Choi GG, Yang JW, Lee B (2014) Use of orange peel extract for mixotrophic cultivation of Chlorella vulgaris increased production of biomass and FAMEs. Bioresour Technol 171:343–349CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Peng W, Wu Q, Tu P (2001) Pyrolytic characteristics of heterotrophic Chlorella protothecoides for renewable bio-fuel production. J Appl Phycol 13:5–12CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Pirt SJ, Tansley (1986) A review (4) the thermodynamic efficiency (quantum demand) and dynamics of photosynthetic growth. J New Phytol 102:3–37Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Pragyaa N, Pandeya KK, Sahoo PK (2013) A review on harvesting, oil extraction and biofuels production technologies from microalgae. Renew Sustain Energy Rev 24:159–171Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    Qiang H, Sommerfeld M, Jarvis E, Ghirardi M, Posewitz M, Seibert M, Darzins A (2008) Microalgal triacylglycerols as feedstocks for biofuel production: perspectives and advances. Plant J 54:621–639CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Ramos de Ortega A, Roux JC (1986) Production of Chlorella biomass in different types of Flat bioreactor in temperate zones. Biomass 10:141–156CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Rashid N, Rehman MSU, Han JI (2013) Recycling and reuse of spent microalgal biomass for sustainable biofuels. Biochem Eng J 75:101–107CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Rawat I, Ranjith R, Mutanda T, Bux F (2011) Dual role of microalgae: phycoremediation of domestic wastewater and biomass production for sustainable biofuels production. J Appl Energy 88:3411–3424CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Reijnders L (2008) Do biofuels from microalgae beat biofuels from terrestrial plants? Trends Biotechnol 26(7):349–350CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Rekha V, Gurusami R, Santhanam P, ShenbagaDevi A, Ananth S (2012) Culture and biofuel production efficiency of Marine Microalgae Chlorella Marina and Skeletonema costatum. Ind J Geo-Marine Sci 41(2):152–158Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    Rodolphi L, Zittelli GC, Bassi N, Padovani G, Biondi N, Bonini G, Tredici MR (2009) Microalgae for oil: strain selection, induction of lipid synthesis and outdoor mass cultivation in a low-cost photobioreactor. J Biotechnol Bioeng 102:100–112CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Rojan P, Johna GS, Anishab K, Nampoothiric M, Pandey A (2011) Micro and macroalgal biomass: a renewable source for bioethanol. Bioresour Technol 102(1):186–193CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Samson R, Leduy A (1985) A multistage continuos cultivation of blue green alga Spirulina maxima in the flat photobioreactor. J Chem Eng 63:105–112Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    Satyanarayana KG, Mariano AB, Vargas JVC (2011) A review: microalgae, a versatile source for sustainable energy and materials. J Integrated Energy Res 35:291–311CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Schenk MP, Skye R, Hall T, Stephens E, Marx UC, Mussgnug JH, Posten C, Kruse O, Hankamer B (2008) Second generation biofuels—high-efficiency microalgae for biodiesel production. J Bioenergy Res 1:20–43CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Scott SA, Davey MP, Dennis JS, Horst I, Howe CJ, LeaSmith DJ, Smith AG (2010) Biodiesel from algae: challenges and prospects. J Curr Opinion Biotechnol 21:277–286CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Sdrula N (2010) A study using classical or membrane separation in the biodiesel process. Desalination 250:1070–1072CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Sheehan J, Dunahay T, Benemann J, Roessler P (1998) A look back at the US Department of Energy’s Aquatic Species Program—biodiesel from algae. National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) report: NREL/TP-580-24190, Golden, COGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Shen QH, Jiang JW, Chen LP, Cheng LH, Xu XH, Chen HL (2015) Effect of carbon source on biomass growth and nutrients removal of Scenedesmusobliquus for wastewater advanced treatment and lipid production. Bioresour Technol 190:257–263CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Sherif SA, Goswami YD, Stefanakos KE, Steinfeld A (2014) A Hand book of hydrogen energy, p 337Google Scholar
  78. 78.
    Singh A, Nigam PS, Murphy JD (2011) Renewable fuels from algae: an answer to debatable land based fuels. Bioresour Technol 102:10–16Google Scholar
  79. 79.
    Spolaore P, Joannis-Cassan C, Duran E, Isambert A (2006) Commercial applications of microalgae. J Biosci Bioeng 101(2):87–96CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Suali E, Sarbatly R (2012) Conversion of microalgae to biofuel. Renew Sustain Energy Rev 16:4316–4342CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Subramaniam R, Dufreche S, Zappi M, Bajpai R (2010) Microbial lipids from renewable resources: production and characterization. J Indus Microbiol Biotechnol 37:1271–1287CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Sun F, Chen H (2008) Organosolv pretreatment by crude glycerol from oleochemicals industry for enzymatic hydrolysis of wheat straw. Bioresour Technol 99:5474–5479CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Tabatabaei M, Masoud T, Salehi JG, Mohammadreza S, Mohammad P (2011) Biodiesel production from genetically engineered microalgae: future of bioenergy in Iran. Renew Sustain Energy Rev 15:1918–1927CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Tapiero H, Townsend DM, Tew KD (2004) The role of carotenoids in the prevention of human pathologies. J Biomed Pharmacol 58:100–110CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    USEIA (2012) Annual energy outlook. US Energy Information Administration. http://www.eia.gov/forecasts/aeo/pdf/0383(2012).pdf
  86. 86.
    Verbruggen A, Mohamed Marchohi, Marchohi Mohamed Al (2010) Views on peak oil and its relation to climate change policy. J Energy Policy 38:5572–5581CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Victoria HW, Sarah DA, Radakovits R, Jinkerson RE, Posewitz MC (2012) Improving photosynthesis and metabolic networks for the competitive production of phototroph-derived biofuels. Curr Opin Biotechnol 23:290–297CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Xin L, Hong-ying H, Ke G, Ying-xue S (2010) Effects of different nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations on the growth, nutrient uptake, and lipid accumulation of a freshwater microalga Scenedesmus sp. Bioresour Technol 101:5494–5500CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Yoo C, Jun SY, Lee JY, Ahn CY, Oh HM (2010) Selection of microalgae for lipid production under high levels carbon dioxide. Bioresour Technol 101:S71–S74CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Young LC, Kyubock L, You-Kwan O (2015) A review-Recent nanoparticle engineering advances in microalgal cultivation and harvesting processes of biodiesel production. Bioresour Technol 184:63–72CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Zheng H, Gao Z, Yin F, Ji X, Huang H (2012) Lipid production of Chlorella vulgaris from lipid extracted microalgal biomass residues through two-step enzymatic hydrolysis. Bioresour Technol 117:1–6CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Centre for Transportation SystemsIndian Institute of Technology RoorkeeRoorkeeIndia
  2. 2.Department of Civil EngineeringIndian Institute of Technology RoorkeeRoorkeeIndia

Personalised recommendations