Forty Years of BioFETOLOGY: A Research Review

  • Jiten Chandra DuttaEmail author
  • Purnima Kumari Sharma
  • Hiranya Ranjan Thakur
Conference paper
Part of the Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing book series (AISC, volume 553)


The past 40 years since the introduction of enzyme field-effect transistor (ENFET) in 1976 has been invaluable towards the development of biological sensors. Many devices came up with its own merits and demerits which made this area of research very popular worldwide. When the biological materials such as living organisms, cells, enzymes, DNA, etc., were combined with ISFET, BioFETs came up. By detailed study of the BioFETs one finds that most of the devices were formed of Si-based ISFETs. Though these devices have many advantages but when it came to sub 22 nm range, scaling problems arose which led to power dissipation, leakage, short channel effects, etc. To overcome these problems researchers opted for the use of carbon nanotubes (CNT) as channel material which gave better scalability, reduced power dissipation, better control over channel formation, etc. The complex fabrication process of the traditional Si-based devices was also simplified by introduction of junctionless CNTFETs. This paper puts forward a study of advances and developments of various BioFETs starting with ENFET and continuing with junctionless CNTFET till date.





The authors thank the Department of Electronics and Information Technology, MCIT, Government of India for the support through Visvesvaraya PhD scheme and Tezpur University for providing the laboratory facilities.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jiten Chandra Dutta
    • 1
    Email author
  • Purnima Kumari Sharma
    • 1
  • Hiranya Ranjan Thakur
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Electronics and Communication EngineeringTezpur UniversityTezpurIndia

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