Advertisement

Isolation, Identification, and Pharmacological Activity of Phytochemicals Present in Litchi chinensis

  • Sunita J. Varjani
  • Pooja Patel
Chapter

Abstract

Litchi fruit pericarp (LFP) tissues constitute about 15% of total weight of the entire fresh fruit and have tremendous quantities of flavonoids, especially flavonols and anthocyanins. The major flavonols in LFP are procyanidin B4, procyanidin B2 and epicatechin, while cyanindin-3-rutinoside, cyanidin-3-glucoside, quercetin-3-rutinoside and quercetin-3-glucoside have been identified as important anthocyanins. A few genes are responsible for anthocyanin accumulation in LFP. Litchi flavonoids exhibit good anti-oxidant activity. Furthermore, LFP extract displays a dose- and time-dependent inhibitory effect on human breast cancers, which may be attributed, in part, to its inhibition of proliferation and induction of cancer cell apoptosis through up- and down regulation of more than one gene. It is suggested that flavonoids from LFP play a crucial role as additives for functional foods and anti-breast-cancer drugs. This review discusses the current knowledge of phytochemicals present in LFP and the medicinal benefits of litchi seed extract.

Keywords

Anthocyanins Flavonoids Litchi chinensis Litchi fruit pericarp (LFP) LC-MS NMR 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The authors are grateful to the Puri Foundation, Gandhinagar, Gujarat, India, for its support.

References

  1. Ahmed J, Ramaswamy HS (2006) High pressure processing of fruits and vegetables. Stewart Postharvest Rev 1:1–10CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Beyers M, Thomas AC, Van Tonder AJ (1979) Gamma irradiation of subtropical fruits. I compositional tables of mango, papaya, strawberry, and litchi fruits at the edible-ripe stage. J Agric Food Chem 27(1):37–42CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Bhoopat L (2011) Hepatoprotective effects of lychee (Litchi chinensis Sonn.): a combination of anti-oxidant and anti-apoptotic activities. J Ethnopharmacol 136(1):55–66CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Biao L, Xiao JL, Gui BH (2014) LcMYB1 is a key determinant of differential anthocyanin accumulation among genotypes, tissues, developmental phases and ABA and light stimuli in Litchi chinensis. PLoS One 9(1):86293CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Cai Y, Luo Q, Sun M, Corke H (2004) Anti-oxidant activity and phenolic compounds of 112 traditional Chinese medicinal plants associated with anti-cancer. Life Sci 74:2157–2184CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Chan HT, Jr Kwok SCM (1974) Non-volatile acid in lychee. J Food Sci Technol 39:792–793Google Scholar
  7. Chen YB, Wu KS, Gu Y, Chen JZ (2007) Research progress in the chemical constituents and pharmacological effects of lychee seeds. Chin J Infect 14:97–98Google Scholar
  8. Cook NC, Samman S (1996) Review: flavonoids—chemistry, metabolism, cardioprotective effects, and dietary sources. J Nutr Biochem 7:66–76CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Corrales M, Toepfl S, Butz P, Knorr D, Tauscher B (2008) Extraction of anthocyanins from grape by-products assisted by ultrasonic, high hydrostatic pressure or pulsed electric fields: a comparison. Innovative Food Sci Emerg Technol 9:85–91CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Dornenburg H, Knorr D (1993) Cellular permeability of cultured plant tissues by high electric field pulses or ultra high pressure for the recovery of secondary metabolites. Food Biotechnol 7:35–48CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Duan XW, Jiang YM, Su XG, Zhang ZQ, Shi J (2007) Anti-oxidant property of anthocyanins extracted from litchi (Litchi chinenesis Sonn.) fruit pericarp tissues in relation to their role in the pericarp browning. Food Chem 101:1382–1388CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Faroogi MIH, Kaul KN (1964) Qualitative studies of sugars and amino-acids from the aril of litchi fruit. Curr Sci 33(6):183Google Scholar
  13. Ghosh SP (2001) World trade in litchi: past, present and future. Acta Hortic 558:23–30CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Glassgen WE, Wray SD, Metzger JW, Seitz HU (1992) Anthocyanins from cell suspension cultures of Daucus carota. Phytochemistry 31:1593–1601CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Harborne JB (1988) The flavonoids: advances in research since 1980. Chapman and Hall, LondonCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Harborne JB, Williams CA (2001) Anthocyanins and other flavonoids. Nat Prod Rep 2001(18):310–333CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Jiang G (2013) Identification of a novel phenolic compound in litchi (Litchi chinensis Sonn.) pericarp and bioactivity evaluation. Food Chem 136(2):563–568CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Jiang YM, Wang Y, Song LL, Liu H, Lichter A, Kerdchoechuen O, Joyce DC, Shi J (2006) Production and postharvest characteristics and technology of litchi fruit: an overview. Aust J Exp Agric 46:1541–1556CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Judy CJ, Ronald CW, Hunter GLK (1980) Volatile constituents of litchi (Litchi chinesis Sonn.). J Agric Food Chem 28:859–861CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Kong JM, Chia LS, Goh NK, Chia TF, Brouillard R (2003) Analysis and biological activities of anthocyanins. Phys Ther 64:923–933Google Scholar
  21. Li J, Jiang Y (2007) Litchi flavonoids: isolation, identification and biological activity. Molecules 12(4):745–758CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Lottto SB, Frei B (2006) Consumption of flavonoid-rich foods and increased plasma anti-oxidant capacity in humans: cause, consequence, or epiphenomenon? Free Radic Biol Med 41:1727–1746CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Luximon-Ramman A, Bahorun T, Crozier A (2003) Anti-oxidant actions and phenolicand vitamin C contents of common Mauritian exotic fruits. J Sci Food Agric 83(5):496–502CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Ma TE, Celestino S, Julián CR (2004) Anthocyanins in cereals. J Chromatogr 1054:129141Google Scholar
  25. Mathew AB, Pushpa MC (1964) Organic acid and carbohydrates of litchi. J. Food Sci Technol 1(4):71Google Scholar
  26. Middleton E, Kandaswami C (1992) Effects of flavonoids on immune and inflammatory cell functions. Biochem Pharmacol 43:1167–1179CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Mukherjee AK, Basu S, Sarkar N, Ghosh AC (2001) Advances in cancer therapy with plant based natural products. Curr Med Chem 8:1467–1486CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Neungnapa R, Jia Z, Xuewu D, Bao Y, Jianrong L, Yueming J (2008) Effects of various temperatures and pH values on the extraction yield of phenolics from litchi fruit pericarp tissue and the anti-oxidant activity of the extracted anthocyanins. Int J Mol Sci 9:1333–1341CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Perez-Jimenez TJL (2011) Analysis of nonextraxtable phenolic compounds in foods: the current state of the art. J Agric Food Chem 59:12713–12724CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Prasad KN, Yang B, Zhao MM, Ruenroengklin N, Jiang YM (2009) Application of ultrasonication or high-pressure extraction of flavonoids from litchi fruit pericarp. J Food Process Eng 32:828–843Google Scholar
  31. Queiroz ER, Abreu CMP, Oliveira KS (2012) Constituintes químicos das frações de lichiain natura e submetidas à secagem: potencial nutricional dos subprodutos. Rev Bras Frutic 34(4):1174–1179CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Revilla E, Ryan JM, Martín-Ortega G (1998) Comparison of several procedures used for the extraction of anthocyanins from red grapes. J Agric Food Chem 46:4592–4597CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Saxena S, Hajare SN, More V, Kumar S, Wadhawan S, Mishr BB, Parte MN, Gautam S, Sharmz A (2011) Anti-oxidant and radio protective properties of commercially grown litchi (Litchi chinensis) from India. Food Chem 126(1):39–45CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Singh MP (1952) Mineral composition of fruits of the litchi (Litchi chinensis Sonn.) and loquat (Eriobotrya japonica Lindl.). Indian J Horticulture 9(4):53–58Google Scholar
  35. Tomás-Barberán FA, Clifford MN (2000) Review: flavanones, chalcones and dihydrochalcones—nature, occurrence and dietary burden. J Sci Food Agric 80:1073–1080CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Wang X, Yuan S, Wang J, Lin P, Liu G, Lu Y, Zhang J, Wang W, Wei Y (2006) Anti-cancer activity of litchi fruit pericarp extract against human breast cancer in vitro and in vivo. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 215:168–178CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Wei YZ, Hu FC, Hu GB, Li XJ, Huang XM et al (2011) Differential expression of anthocyanin biosynthetic genes in relation to anthocyanin accumulation in the pericarp of Litchi chinensis Sonn. PLoS One 6:e19455CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  38. Xiao LY, Zhang D, Feng ZM, Chen YW, Zhang H, Lin PY (2004) Studies on the anti-tumor effect of lychee seeds in mice. J Chin Med Mater 27:517–518Google Scholar
  39. Xiong AH, Shen WJ, Xiao LY, Lv JH (2008) Effect of semen litchi containing serum on proliferation and apoptosis of HepG2 cells. Zhongyaocai 31(10):1533–1536PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Xu X, Xie H, Wang Y, Wei X (2010) A-type proanthocyanidins from lychee seeds and their antioxidant and anti-viral activities. Agric Food Chem 58(22):11667–11672Google Scholar
  41. Xu X, Xie H, Hao J, Jiang Y, Wei X (2011) Flavonoid glycosides from the seeds of Litchi chinensis. Agric and Food Chem 59(4):1205–1209CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Yochum LA, Kushi LH, Meyer K, Folsom AR (2000) Dietary flavonoid intake and risk of cardiovascular disease in postmenopausal women. Amer J Epidemiol 149:943–949CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Zhang DL, Grigor JM, Quantick PC (2000) Changes in phenolic compounds in litchi (Litchi chinensis Sonn.) fruit during postharvest storage. Postharvest Biol Technol 19:165–172CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Zhang ZQ, Pang XQ, Ji ZL, Jiang YM (2001) Role of anthocyanin degradation in litchi pericarp browning. Food Chem 75:217–221CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Zhang ZQ, Pang XQ, Yang C, Ji ZL, Jiang YM (2004a) Purification and structural analysis of anthocyanins from litchi pericarp. Food Chem 84:601–604CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Zhang S, Junjie Z, Changzhen W (2004b) Novel high pressure extraction technology. Int J Pharm 78:471–474Google Scholar
  47. Zhao M, Yang B, Wang JS, Li BZ, Jiang YM (2006) Identification of the major flavonoids from pericarp tissues of lychee fruit in relation to their anti-oxidant activities. Food Chem 98:737–742CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Biological Sciences and BiotechnologyUniversity and Institute of Advanced ResearchGandhinagarIndia

Personalised recommendations