Advertisement

Regeneration from Nodal Explants of Field-Grown Litchi (Litchi chinensis Sonn.) Fruit Trees

  • Vivek Kumar
  • Priyanku Teotia
  • Ram Prasad
  • Ajit Varma
  • Neera Sarin
  • Manoj Kumar
Chapter

Abstract

Mass propagation of Litchi chinensis (Sonn.) via seeds is understood as detrimental because of the highly heterozygous nature of the plant due to cross-pollination. The conservative methods of vegetative propagation utilized for litchi are air layering or marcottage, grafting, and budding which are slow and incompetent as evinced by several reports. In the recent past numerous efforts for clonal propagation of litchi were made with marginal success. Earlier our group have reported multiple shoot induction and plant regeneration in litchi from the nodal cuttings and cotyledonary nodes and by in planta treatment of the axillary bud regions. In this, we highlight a research protocol which has a comprehensive discussion. It addresses the technical inputs for reproducible and efficient method of in vitro regeneration of elite litchi trees appropriate for clonal propagation. The protocol that has been referred has been proven advantageous to the horticulturists and the industry for recalcitrant trees, those that can be developed as true to the parental type.

Keywords

Litchi Heterozygous Grafting Clonal propagation True to the parental type 

References

  1. Amin MN, Jaiswal VS (1988) Micropropagation as an aid to rapid cloning of a guava cultivar. Sci Hortic 36:89–95CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bhat SR, Chandel KPS, Malik SR (1995) Plant regeneration from various explants of cultivated Piper species. Plant Cell Rep 14:395–402CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Butcher FG (1957) Pollinating insects of lychee blossoms. Proc Fla State Hortic Soc 70:326–28Google Scholar
  4. Chandra R, Padaria JC (1999) Litchi shoot bud culture for micropropagation. J Appl Hort 191:38–40Google Scholar
  5. Chapman KR (1984) Sapindaceae. In: Page PE (ed) Tropical tree fruits for Australia. Queensland Dept. of Primary Industries, Queensland, pp 179–191Google Scholar
  6. Chaturvedi R, Razdan MK, Bhojwani SS (2004) In vitro clonal propagation of an adult tree of neem (Azadirachta indica) by forced axillary branching. Plant Sci 166:501–506CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Constabel F (1984) Callus culture: induction and maintenance. In: Vasil IK (ed) Cell culture and somatic cell genetics of plants, vol 1. Academic, New York, 79: 217–222Google Scholar
  8. Das DK, Prakash NS, Sarin NB (1999) Multiple shoot induction and plant regeneration in litchi (Litchi chinensis Sonn.). Plant Cell Rep 18:691–695CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Economou AS, Spanoudaki MJ (1986) The influence of cytokinins and Gibberellic acid on gardenia tissue cultures. Sci Hortic 29:155–161CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Evers P (1984) Growth and morphogenesis of shoot initials of Douglas fir, Pseudotsuga menzisii (Mirb.) Franco, in vitro 1. Plant nutrition and physical factors. Uitvoerig Verslag 16(1):1–47Google Scholar
  11. Gamborg OL, Shyluk JP (1981) Methodology, nutrition, media, and characteristics of plant cell and tissue culture. In: Thorpe TA (ed) Plant tissue culture methods and application in agriculture. Academic, New York, pp 21–43Google Scholar
  12. Gaspar PE, Reeves DL, Schumacher TE, Fixen PE (1994) Oat cultivar response to potassium chloride on soils testing high in potassium. Agron J 86:255–258.Google Scholar
  13. George PS, Ravishankar GA, Venkataraman LV (1993) Clonal multiplication of Gardenia jasminoides Ellis through axillary bud culture. Plant Cell Rep 13:59–62CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Goto YB (1960) Lychee and its processing. Pacific Region Food Conf.: 15-23.graftage onto juvenile rootstocks in vitro. Hortscience 22:1321–1324Google Scholar
  15. Guha S, Maheshware SC (1964) In vitro production of embryos from anthers of Datura. Nature 204:497CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Hamilton RA, Yee W (1970) Lychee cultivars in Hawaii. Proc Trop Am Soc Horticult Sci 14:7–12Google Scholar
  17. Hayes WB (1957) Fruit growing in India (3rd rev ed). Kitabistan, Allahabad, pp 323–332Google Scholar
  18. Hewitt EJ (1996) Sand and water culture methods used in the study of plant nutrition. Technical Communication No. 22. Commonwealth Bureau of Horticulture and Plantation Crops, East Malling, Maidstone, Kent, EnglandGoogle Scholar
  19. Hulme JS, Higgins ES, Shields R (1992) An efficient genotype independent method for regeneration of potato plants from leaf tissue. Plant Cell Tissue Organ Cult 31:161–167CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Hutchinson JE (1984) Factors affecting shoot proliferation and root initiation in organ culture of apple 'Northern Spy'. Sci Hortic 22:347–358CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Joshi R, Shekhawat NS, Rathore TS (1991) Micropropagation of Anogeissus pendula Edgen. – An arid Forest tree. Indian J Exp Biol 29:615–618Google Scholar
  22. Kantharajah AS, McConchie CA, Dodd WA (1989) The possible contribution of tissue culture to the lychee industry. In: Proceedings of the second national lychee seminar, Cairns, pp 59–65Google Scholar
  23. Kumar M, Shiva PN, Muthusamy A, Prasad US, Sarin NB (2004) Problems and perspectives of mass scale production of litchi using in vitro cultures. In: Proceedings of national seminar on recent advances in production and post harvest technology of litchi for Export. BCKV, West Bengal, June 24–26, pp 12–17Google Scholar
  24. Kumar M, Prakash NS, Prasad US, Sarin NB (2006) A novel approach of regeneration from nodal explants of field grown litchi (Litchi chinensis Sonn.) fruit trees. J Plant Sci 5(3):321–327Google Scholar
  25. Lesham YY, S Sridara, JE Thompson (1984) Involvement of calcium and calmodulin in membrane deterioration during senescence of pea foliage. Plant Physiol 75:329–335.Google Scholar
  26. Litz RE, Conover RA (1981) Effect of sex type, season and other factors on in vitro establishment and culture of Carica papaya L. explants. J Am Soc Hortic Sci 106:792–794.Google Scholar
  27. Lloyd G, McCown B (1980) Commercially-feasible micropropagation of mountain laurel, Kalmia latifolia, by use of shoot-tip culture. Proc Int Plant Propagators 30:421–427Google Scholar
  28. McCown BH, Sellmer JC (1987) General media and vessels suitable for woody plant cultures. In: Bonga JM, Durzan DJ (eds) Tissue culture in forestry – general principles and biotechnology, vol 2. Martinus Nijhoff Publ., Dordrecht/Boston, pp 4–6Google Scholar
  29. Menzel CM (1985) Propagation of lychee: a review. Sci Hortic 21:201–215CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Murashige T, Skoog F (1962) A revised medium for rapid growth and bioassays with tobacco cultures. Physiol Plant 15:473–497CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Nandwani D (1994) Clonal propagation of M. esculenta (Box- berry) A fruit bearing tree of north-east India. Gartenbauwissenchaft (Horticultural Science) 59(6):264–267Google Scholar
  32. Pandey RM, Sharma HC (1989) The litchi. ICAR, New Delhi, pp 1–79Google Scholar
  33. Pattnaik SK, Chand PK (1996) In vitro propagation of the medicinal herbs Ocimum americanum L. Syn, O. canum Sims (hoary basil) and Ocimum sanctum L. (holy basil). Plant Cell Rep 15:846–850CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Pliego-Alfaro F, Murashige T (1987) Possible rejuvenation of adult avocado by graftage onto juvenile rootstocks in vitro. Hortscience 22:1321–1324Google Scholar
  35. Raghava Swamy BV, Himabindu K, Lakshmi Sita G (1992) In vitro micropropagation of elite rosewood (Dalbergia latifolia Roxb.). Plant Cell Rep 11:126–131Google Scholar
  36. Ray PK, Sharma SB (1985) Viability of Litchi chinensis seed when stored in air and water. J Agric Sci (Camb), 104(1985): 247–248.Google Scholar
  37. Sarin NB, Prasad US (2003) In vitro regeneration and transformation of litchi (Litchi chinensis Sonn.) In: Jaiwal PK, Singh RP (eds) Plant genetic engineering, improvement of fruits, vol 6. Sci Tech Publishing LLC, pp 211–222Google Scholar
  38. Sen J, Sharma AK (1991) Micropropagation of Withania somnifera from germinating seeds and shoot tips. Plant Cell Tissue Organ Cult 26:71–73CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Songstad DD, Duncan DR, Widholm JM (1988) Effect of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid, silver nitrate and norbornadiene on plant regeneration from maize callus cultures. Plant Cell Rep 7:262–265CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Sutter EG, Barker PB (1985) In vitro propagation of mature Liquidambar styraciflua. Plant Cell Tissue Organ Cult 5:13–21CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Mishra KA, Syamal MM (1984) Litchi cultivation in India. Farmer & Parliament 1915–16 and 27–28Google Scholar
  42. Yu CH, Chen AG (1998) Embryogenic suspension culture and protoplast isolation in Litchee. Chinese J Trop Crops 19:16–20Google Scholar
  43. Yu YB (1991) Study on some factors in tissue culture of lychee (Litchi chinensis). Fujian Agric Sci Technol 5:17–18Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Vivek Kumar
    • 1
  • Priyanku Teotia
    • 2
  • Ram Prasad
    • 1
  • Ajit Varma
    • 1
  • Neera Sarin
    • 3
  • Manoj Kumar
    • 1
  1. 1.Amity Institute of Minorbial TechnologyAmity UniversityNoidaIndia
  2. 2.Laboratory of Microbiology, Department of BotanyCCS UniversityMeerutIndia
  3. 3.School of Life SciencesJawaharlal Nehru UniversityNew DelhiIndia

Personalised recommendations