The Historical Context of the Role and Status of Scholars and Teachers in Traditional China

  • Leslie Nai Kwai Lo
  • Juyan YeEmail author
Part of the New Frontiers of Educational Research book series (NFER)


Since the world learned about the stellar performance of Shanghai’s secondary students in recent international assessments (in PISA 2009 and PISA 2012), speculations abound as to how the Chinese students could have collectively demonstrated such extraordinary academic ability in the international aptitude tests. In the PISA tests that involved sixty-five countries and territories around the world, the students of Shanghai set themselves apart as the outlier of high achievers whose performance in reading, mathematics and science tests was far above world norms.


Filial Piety Ming Dynasty Private Tutor Chinese Teacher Modern School 
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© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Beijing Normal UniversityBeijingPeople’s Republic of China

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