Conceiving and Applying Relationship Models for Design Strategy

  • Terence FennEmail author
  • Jason Hobbs
Conference paper
Part of the Smart Innovation, Systems and Technologies book series (SIST, volume 66)


In this paper a new framework for problem solving in design is presented that positions the use of relationship models, in the context of design strategy, as a tool for the retention of synthetic integrity. A brief overview of complex problems in design with a specific focus on the creative leap from research analysis to design strategy is provided. The paper then introduces the fields of Strategy and Experience Design and demonstrates how, when applied together, they can assist in solving problems in a human-centered manner. Relationship models are then introduced and briefly discussed in context to Customer Relationship Management theory. Lastly, a template for creating experience-led relationship models is presented and exemplified. The example demonstrates how the overall framework presented in this paper ensures the synthetic integrity of the design.


Design strategy Experience design Service design Relationship models 


  1. 1.
    Helsinki Design Lab, Sitra. Visited on 20 Oct 2016
  2. 2.
    Steen, M.: Tensions in human-centred design. CoDesign: Int. J. CoCreation Des. Arts 7(1), 45–60 (2011)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Sanders, E., Stappers, P.: Co-creation and the new landscapes of design. CoDesign: Int. J. CoCreation Des. Arts 4(1), 5–18 (2008)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Keinonen, T.: Protect and appreciate—notes on the justification of user-centered design. Int. J. Des. 4(1), 17–27 (2010)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    IDEO: HCD: Human Centered Design Toolkit, 2nd edn. Available from Visited on 20 Apr 2016
  6. 6.
    IDEO: Visited on 26 Aug 2016
  7. 7.
    Krippendorf, K.: Design: an oxymoron?’. In: Michel, R. (ed.) Design Research Now. Birkhauser Verlag AG, Basel, Boston and Berlin (2007)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Rittel, H., Webber, M.: Dilemmas in a general theory of planning. Policy Sci. 4, 155–169 (1973)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Wikedpedia: Visited on 20 Oct 2016
  10. 10.
    Stanford, D School: Visited on 20 Oct 2016
  11. 11.
    Hobbs, J., Fenn, T.: The firma model: a meta-framework for design research, strategy and critique. In: The Virtuous Circle, Summer Cumulus Conference. Politecnico de Milano 3–7 June 2015, Milan (2015)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Porter, M.: What is strategy? In: The Harvard Business Review (1996)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Rumelt, R.: Good Strategy/Bad Strategy: The Difference and Why it Matters. Profile Books, London (2012)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Kolko, J.: Design thinking comes of age. Harvard Business Review (2015)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Hassenzahl, M.: Experience Design: Technology for all the Right Reasons. Morgan & Claypool, San Rafael, CA (2010)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Rogers, Y., Sharp, H., Preece, J.: Interaction Design: Beyond Human–Computer-Interaction, 3rd edn. John Wiley & Sons, Chichester, UK (2012)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Garrett, J.: The Elements of User Experience Design. New Riders, Berkley; CA (2010)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Unger, R., Chandler, C.: A Project Guide to UX Design: For User Experience Designers in the Field or in the Making. New Riders, Berkley (2009)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Wilson, C.: User Experience Design Remastered. Morgan Kaufman, Burlington, MA (2010)Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    McCarthy, J., Wright, P.: Technology as Experience. MIT Press, Cambridge, MA (2004)Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Wright, P., McCarthy, J.: Experience Centered Design. Morgan & Claypool, San Rafael, CA (2010)Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Imhoff, C., Geiger, J.: Lisa Loftis Building the Customer-Centric Enterprise: Part 1.–1.html. Visited on 20 Oct 2016
  23. 23.
  24. 24.
    Adaptive Path. Adaptive Paths Guide to Experience Mapping. Adaptive Path, San Fransisco (2013). Available in high resolution from
  25. 25.
    Parush, A.: Conceptual Design for Interactive Systems. Morgan Kaufman, Waltham, MA (2010)Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Kalbach, J.: Mapping experiences: aligning for value, Early Release Ed, Sebastopol O’Reilley (2016)Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Caddick, R., Cable, S.: Communicating the User Experience. Wiley (2011) Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Vargo, S., Maglio, P., Akaka, M.: On value and value co-creation: a service systems and service logic perspective. Eur. Manag. J. 26, 145–152 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of MultimediaUniversity of JohannesburgJohannesburgSouth Africa

Personalised recommendations