Range of Microbial Disease Complexes with Meloidogyne Species and Role of Botanicals in Management

  • SafiuddinEmail author
  • Rose Rizvi
  • Irshad Mahmood


Plant diseases are economically very important. The increasing realization of role of plant niche environment particularly the rhizosphere has triggered the application of management strategies to manage soilborne diseases below threshold. Among these regulatory strategies, one important aspect is to break the pathogenic symbioses as disease complexes. The present chapter has been divided into two parts: the first part focuses on the important soil pathogens in the vicinity with host plants with the role of edaphic climate in their association as disease complexes, while the second one deals with the changing strategy of soil environment using eco-friendly botanicals to discourage formation of disease complexes.


  1. Abawi GS, Barker KR (1984) Effects of cultivar, soil temperature, and population levels of Meloidogyne incognita on root-necrosis and Fusarium wilt of tomatoes. Phytopathology 74:433–438CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Abdel-Aziez SM, Eweda WE, Girgis MGZ, Ghany BFA (2014) Improving the productivity and quality of black cumin (Nigella sativa) by using Azotobacter as N2 biofertilizer. Ann Agric Sci 59:95–108Google Scholar
  3. Abdel-Momen SM, Starr JL (1998) Meloidogyne javanica-Rhizoctonia solani disease complex of peanut. Fundam Appl Nematol 21:611–616Google Scholar
  4. Abid M, Zaki MJ, Maqbool MA (1995) Neem derivatives for the control of root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne javanica) on okra. Pak J Phytopathol 7:212–214Google Scholar
  5. Agrios G (2005) Plant pathology. Elsevier Academic Press, BurlingtonGoogle Scholar
  6. Ahmad MU (1989) Effect of mustard oil-cake as organic amendment on the root-knot of brinjal. Bangladesh J Agric Sci 16:257–259Google Scholar
  7. Ahmed ZM, Dawar S, Tariq M (2009) Fungicidal potential of some local tree seeds for controlling root rot disease. Pak J Bot 41:1439–1444Google Scholar
  8. Akhtar M (2000) Nematicidal potential of the neem tree Azadirachta indica (a. Juss). Integr Pest Manag Rev 5:57–66CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Akhtar MS, Siddiqui ZA (2008) Glomus intraradices, Pseudomonas alcaligenes and Bacillus pumilus: effective agents for the control of root-rot disease complex of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) J Gen Plant Pathol 74:53–60CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Alam MM (1991) Control of plant parasitic nematodes with oil seed cakes on some vegetables in field. Pak J Nematol 9:21–30Google Scholar
  11. Alam MM, Jairajpuri MS (1990) Nematode control strategies. In: Jairajpuri MS, Alam MM, Ahmad I (eds) Nematode biocontrol (aspects and prospects). CBS Publisher and Distributors, Delhi, pp 5–15Google Scholar
  12. Alam S, Akhtar N, Begum MF, Banu MS, Islam MR, Chowdhury AN, Alam MS (2002) Antifungal activities (In vitro) of some plant extracts and smoke on four fungal pathogens of different hosts. Pak J Biol Sci 5:307–309CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Amin KS, Sequeira L (1966) Phytotoxic substances from decomposing lettuce residues in relation to etiology of corky root rot of lettuce. Phytopathology 56:1054–1061Google Scholar
  14. Anderson NA (1982) The geneticsa nd pathology of Rhizoctonia solani. Annu Rev Phytopathol 20:329–347CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Ansari N, Azam MF (2005) Pathogenecity of root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita on green gram. Bionotes 7:102Google Scholar
  16. Arya A, Saxena SK (1999) Influence of certain rhizosphere fungi together with Rhizoctonia solani and Meloidogyne incognita on germination of “Pusa ruby” tomato seeds. Indian. Phytopathology 52:121–126Google Scholar
  17. Ashraf MS, Khan TA (2010) Integrated approach for the management of Meloidogyne javanica on eggplant using oil cakes and biocontrol agents. Arch Phytopathol Plant Prot 43:609–614CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Baby UI, Manibhushanrao K (1996) Influence of organic amendments on arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in relation to rice sheath blight disease. Mycorrhiza 6:201–206CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Back MA, Jenkinson P, Haydock PPJ (2000) The interaction between potato cyst nematodes and Rhizoctonia solani diseases in potatoes. In: Proceedings of the Brighton crop protection conference, pests and diseases. Farnham, British Crop Protection Council, pp 503–506Google Scholar
  20. Back MA, Haydock PPJ, Jenkinson P (2002) Disease complexes involving plant parasitic nematodes and soil-borne pathogens. Plant Pathol 51:683–697CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Bailey KL, Lazarovits GL (2003) Suppressing soil-borne diseases with residue management and organic amendments. Soil Tillage Res 72:169–180CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Bar-Eyal M, Sharon E, Spiegel Y (2006) Nematicidal activity of Chrysanthemum coronarium. Eur J Plant Pathol 114:427–433CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Batten CK, Powel NT (1971) The Rhizoctonia – Meloidogyne disease complex in flue–cured tobacco. J Nematol 3:164–169PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  24. Bergeson GB (1972) Concepts of nematode-fungus associations in plant disease complexes: a review. Exp Parasitol 32:301–314PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Berkeley MJ (1855) Vibrio forming cysts on the roots of cucumbers. Gardener’s chronicle and agricultural. Gazette 14:220Google Scholar
  26. Bertrand B, Nuñez C, Sarah JL (2000) Disease complex in coffee involving Meloidogyne arabicida and Fusarium oxysporum. Plant Pathol 49:383–388CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Bhatt J, Vadhera I (1997) Histopathological studies on cohabitation of Pratylenchus thornei and Rhizoctonia bataticola on chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) Adv Plant Sci 10:33–38Google Scholar
  28. Bhosle BB, Sehgal M, Puri SN, Das S (2004) Prevalence of phytophagous nematodes in rhizosphere of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L. Moench) in Parbhani District, Maharashtra, India. Indian J Nematol 34:56–59Google Scholar
  29. Bird DM, Kaloshian I (2003) Are roots special? Nematodes have their say. Physiol Mol Plant Pathol 62:115–123CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Brodie BB, Cooper WE (1964) Relalion of parasitic nematodes to postemergence damping-off of cotton. Phytopathology 54:1023–1027Google Scholar
  31. Cabreiro F, Gems D (2013) Worms need microbes too: microbiota, health and aging in Caenorhabditis elegans. EMBO Mol Med 5:1300–1310PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Castillo P, Mora-Rodriguez MP, Navas-Cortes JA, Jimenez-Diaz RM (1998) Interactions of Pratylenchus thornei and Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris on chickpea. Phytopathology 88:828–836PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Chand CD (2004) Pathogenecity of Meloidogyne incognita on Allium hookerii. J Appl Zoolog Res 15:70–71Google Scholar
  34. Cook RJ (1977) Management of the associated microbiota. In: Horsfall JG, Cowling EB (eds) Plant disease. Academic Press, New York, pp 145–160Google Scholar
  35. Darekar KS, Mhase NL, Shelke SS (1990) Effect of placement of non-edible oilseed cakes on the control of root-knot nematodes on tomato. International nematology network. Newsletter 7:5–7Google Scholar
  36. Dawar S, Younus SM, Tariq M, Zaki MJ (2007) Use of Eucalyptus sp., in the control of root infecting fungi on mung bean and chickpea. Pak J Bot 39:975–979Google Scholar
  37. De Oliveira-Garcia D, Dall’Agnol M, Rosales M, Azzuz ACGS, Alcantara N, Martinez MB, Giron JA (2003) Fimbriae and adherence of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia to epithelial cells and to abiotic surfaces. Cell Microbiol 5:625–636PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. De RK, Ali SS, Dwivedi RP (2001) Effect of interaction between Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lentil and Meloidogyne javanica on lentil. Indian J Pulses Res 14:71–73Google Scholar
  39. Debprasad R, Prasad D, Singh RP, Ray D (2000) Chemical examination and antinemic activity of marigold (Tagetes erecta L.) flower. Ann Plant Prot Sci 8:212–217Google Scholar
  40. Devakumar C, Goswami DK, Mukerjee SK (1985) Nematicida principles from neem (Azadirachta indica a. Juss.). Part 1. Screening of neem kernel fractions against Meloidogyne incognita. Ind J Nematol 15:121–124Google Scholar
  41. Dias CR, Schwan AV, Ezequiel DP, Sarmento MC, Ferraz S (2000) Efeito de extratos aquosos de plantas medicinais na sobrevivencia de juvenis de Meloidogyne incognita. Nematol Bras 24:203–210Google Scholar
  42. Diomande M, Black MC, Beute MK, Barlœr KR (1981) Enhancement of Cylindrociadium crotalariae root-rot by Meloidogyne arenaria (race 2) on a peanut cultivar resistant to both pathogens. J Nematol 13:321–327PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  43. Dubey SC, Suresh M, Singh B (2007) Evaluation of Trichoderma species against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris for integrated management of chickpea wilt. Biol Control 40:118–127CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Dubey RC, Kumar H, Pandey RR (2009) Fungitoxic effect of neem extracts on growth and sclerotial survival of Macrophomina phaseolina in vitro. J Am Sci 5:17–24Google Scholar
  45. Ehteshamul-haque S, Zaki MJ, Vahidy AA (1998) Effect of organic amendments on the efficacy of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in the control of root rot disease of sunflower. Pak J Bot 30:45–50Google Scholar
  46. Ekenma AGWUJ, Chidera EZIGBOJ (2005) Effect of Meloidogyne incognita (root- knot nematode) on the development of Abelmoschus esculentus (okra). Anim Res Int 2:358–362Google Scholar
  47. Emmanuel S, Rani MS, Sreekanth MR (2010) Antidiabetic activity of Cassia occidentalis Linn. In streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats: a dose dependent study. Int J Pharm Bio Sci 1:14–25Google Scholar
  48. Fassuliotis G, Skucas GP (1969) The effect of a pyrrolizidine alkaloid ester and plants containing pyrrolizidine on Meloidogyne incognita acrita. J Nematol 1:287–288Google Scholar
  49. Garigan D, Hsu AL, Fraser AG, Kamath RS, Ahringer J, Kenyon C (2002) Genetic analysis of tissue aging in Caenorhabditis elegans: a role for heat-shock factor and bacterial proliferation. Genetics 161:1101–1112PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  50. Gill JS, Sivasithamparam K, KRJ S (2000) Soil types with different texture affects development of Rhizoctonia root rot of wheat seedlings. Plant Soil 221:113–120CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Gill JS, Sivasithamparam K, KRJ S (2001) Effect of soil moisture at different temperatures on Rhizoctonia root rot of wheat seedlings. Plant Soil 231:91–96CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Golden JK, Van Gundy SD (1975) A disease complex of okra and tomato involving the nematode, Meloidogyne incognita and the soil-inhabiting fungus, Rhizoctonia solani. Phytopathology 65:265–275CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Gommers FJ, Bakker J (1988) Physiological diseases induced by plant response or products. In: Poinar GO, Jansson HB (eds) Diseases of nematodes, vol 1. CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida, pp 3–22Google Scholar
  54. Goswami BK (1993) Effect of different soil amendments with neem cake on root-knot nematode and soil mycoflora in cowpea rhizosphere. Indian J Plant Prot 21:87–89Google Scholar
  55. Goswami BK, Vijayalakshmi K (1986) Efficacy of some indigenous plant material and non edible oil seed cakes against Meloidogyne incognita on tomato. Indian J Nematol 16:280–181Google Scholar
  56. Gottlieb D (1976) The production and role of antibiotics in soil. J Antibiot (Tokyo) 29:987–999CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Grover A, Gowthaman R (2003) Strategies for development of fungus-resistant transgenic plants. Curr Sci 84:330–340Google Scholar
  58. Hafez SL, Al-Rehiayani S, Thornton M, Sundararaj P (1999) Differentiation of two geographically isolated populations of Pratylenchus neglectus based on their parasitism of potato and interaction with Verticillium dahliae. Nematropica 29:25–36Google Scholar
  59. Hazarika BP, Roy AK (1974) Effect of Rhizoctonia solani on the reproduction of Meloidogyne incognita on egg plant. Indian J Nematol 4:246–247Google Scholar
  60. Hussain MA, Mukhtar T, Kayani MZ (2011) Assessment of the damage caused by Meloidogyne incognita on okra (Abelmoschus esculentus). J Anim Plant Sci 21:857–861Google Scholar
  61. Hussey RS (1985) Host parasite relationships and associated physiological changes. In: Barker KR, Carter CC, Sasser JN (eds) An advanced treatise on Meloidogyne. North Carolina State University Graphics, Raleigh, pp 143–153Google Scholar
  62. Ingham RE, Trofymow JA, Ingham ER, Coleman DC (1985) Interactions of bacteria, fungi, and their nematode grazers: effects on nutrient cycling and plant growth. Ecol Monogr 55:119–140CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Jacobsen JB (2006) Root rot diseases of sugar beet. Proc Natl Acad Sci 110:9–19Google Scholar
  64. Javed N, Anwar SA, Fyaz S, Khan MM, Ashfaq M (2008) Effects of neem formulations applied as soil drenching on the development of root-knot nematode Meloidogyne javanica on roots of tomato. Pak J Bot 40:905–910Google Scholar
  65. Jeyarajan R, Doraiswamy S, Bhaskaran R, Jayaraj S, Draiswamy S, Schmuttere S (1987). Effect of neem (Azadirachta indica) and other plant products in the management of plant disease in India. In: Natural pesticides from the Neem tree, Azadirachta indica a. Juss and other tropical plants, pp 635–644.Google Scholar
  66. Johnson DA, Santo GS (2001) Development of wilt in mint in response to infection by two pathotypes of Verticillium dahliae and co-infection by Pratylenchus Penetrans. Plant Dis 85:1189–1192CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Jonathan EI, Gajendran G, Arulmozhiyan R (1997) Interaction of Rotylenchulus reniformis and Phytophthora palmivora on betelvine. Nematol Mediterr 25:191–193Google Scholar
  68. Kaitany R, Melakeberhan H, Bird GW, Safir G (2000) Association of Phytophthora sojae with Heterodera glycines and nutrient stressed soybeans. Nematropica 30:193–199Google Scholar
  69. Kankam F, Adomako J (2014) Influence of inoculum levels of root knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.) on tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) Asian J Agric Food Sci 2:171–178Google Scholar
  70. Khalil MS (2013) Abamectin and azadirachtin as eco-friendly promising biorational tools in integrated nematodes management programs. J Plant Pathol Microbiol 4:174–183CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Khan MW (1993) Mechanism of interactions between nematodes and other plant pathogens. In: Khan MW (ed) Nematode interactions. Chapman and Hall, London, pp 55–78CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Khan MR, Haque Z (2011) Soil application of Pseudomonas fluorescens and Trichoderma harzianum reduces root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita, on tobacco. Phytopathol Mediterr 50:257–266Google Scholar
  73. Khan TA, Saxena SK (1997) Effect of root-dip treatment with fungal filtrates on root penetration, development and reproduction of Meloidogyne javanica on tomato. Int J Nematol 7:85–88Google Scholar
  74. Khan TA, Ashraf MS, Hasan S (2006) Pathogenicit and life cycle of Meloidogyne javanica on balsam (Impatiens balsamia). Arch Phytopathol Plant Prot 39:45–48CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Khan TA, Ashraf MS, Dar RA (2008) Pathogenecity and life cycle of Meloidogyne javanica on broccoli. Arch Phytopathol Plant Prot 43:602–608CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Khanna AS, Jyoti J (2004) Pathogenicity of Meloidogyne incognita on Dianthus caryophillus. Phytopathol Mediterr 32:125–126Google Scholar
  77. Khanna AS, Nattuthurai N, Vaitheeswaran M, Rathinavathy J, Reuben R (1987). Control of plant parasitic nematode with organic amendments. In: Proceedings of the symposium alternatives to synthetic insecticides in integrated pest management systems, Madurai, pp 223–321.Google Scholar
  78. Kim DH (2013) Bacteria and the aging and longevity of Caenorhabditis Elegans. Annu Rev Genet 47:233–246PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Kirkegaard JA, Gardner PA, Desmarchelier JM, Angus JF (1993). Biofumigation using Brassica species to control pests and diseases in horticulture and agriculture. In: Wratten N, Mailer RJ (eds) Proceedings 9th Australian Research Assembly on Brassicas Agricultural Research Institute, Wagga, pp 77–82.Google Scholar
  80. Koike ST, Subbarao KV, Davis RM, Turini TA. (2003). Vegetable diseases caused by soilborne pathogens. ANR University of California, Publication 8099.Google Scholar
  81. Komarek M, Cadkova E, Chrastny V, Bordas F, Bollinger JC (2010) Contamination of vineyard soils with fungicides: a review of environmental and toxicological aspects. Environ Int 36:138–151PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Kookana RS, Baskaran S, Naidu R (1998) Pesticide fate and behaviour in Australian soils in relation to contamination and management of soil and water: a review. Aust J Soil Res 36:715–764CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Kühn J (1858). Die Krankheiten der Kulturgewachse, ihre Ursachen und Verhutung.Google Scholar
  84. Kuprashvili TD (1996) The use phytocides for seed treatment. Zashchita-I- Karantin- Rastenii 55:31Google Scholar
  85. Lemanczyk G (2010) Occurrence of sharp eyespot in spring cereals grown in some regions of Poland. J Plant Prot Res 50:505–512Google Scholar
  86. Linford MB, Yap F, Oliveira JM (1938) Reduction of soil population of root-knot nematode during decomposition of organic matter. Soil Sci 45:127–141CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Lucas GB, Campbell CL, Lucas LT (1997) Introduction to plant disease identification and management. CBS Publishers and Distributors, New Delhi, p 364Google Scholar
  88. Lumsden RD, Lewis JA, Millner PD (1983) Effect of composted sewage sludge on several soilborne plant pathogens and diseases. Phytopathology 73:1543–1548CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Matthiessen JN, Kirkegaard JA (2006) Biofumigation and enhanced biodegradation: opportunity and challenge in Soilborne Pest and disease management. Crit Rev Plant Sci 25:235–265CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. McSorley R, Dickson DW (1995) Effect of tropical rotation crops on Meloidogyne incognita and other plant-parasitic nematodes. J Nematol 27:535–544PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  91. Mohan S, Fould S, Davies G (2001) The interaction between the gelatin-binding domain of fibronectin and the attachement of Pasteuria penetrans endospores to nematode cuticle. Parasitology 123:271–276PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Mojumdar V, Mishra SD (1993) Soil application of aqueous extracts of neem products for the management of Meloidogyne Incognita in chickpea. Curr Nematol 4:105–107Google Scholar
  93. Mokbel AA, Ibrahim IKA, Shehata MRA, El-Saedy MAM (2007) Interaction between certain root-rot fungi and the root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita on sunflower plants. Egypt J Phytopathol 35:1–11Google Scholar
  94. Mukhtar T, Kayani MZ, Hussain MA (2013) Response of selected cucumber cultivars to Meloidogyne incognita. Crop Prot 44:13–17CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Mumm R, Burow M, Bukovinszkine’kiss G, Kazantzidou E, Wittstock U, Dicke M, Gershenzon J (2008) Formation of simple nitriles upon glucosinolate hydrolysis affects direct and indirect defense against the specialist herbivore, Pieris rapae. J Chem Ecol 34:1311–1321PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Nicolay R, Sikora RA (1991) Interrelationships between fungal egg parasitism in Heterodera schachtii (Schmidt) and nematode population density. Rev Nematol 14:231–249Google Scholar
  97. Nogueira MA, de Oliveira JS, Ferraz S, Dos Santos MA (1996) Nematicidal constituents in Mucuna aterrima and its activity on Meloidogyne incognita race 3. Nematol Mediterr 24:249–252Google Scholar
  98. Ntalli G, Caboni P (2012) Botanical nematicides: A review. J Agric Food Chem 60:9929–9940PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Oduor-Owino P (2003) Control of root-knot nematodes in Kenya with aldicarb and selected antagonistic plants. Nematol Mediterr 31:125–127Google Scholar
  100. Oka Y (2010) Mechanisms of nematode suppression by organic soil amendments–a review. Appl Soil Ecol 44:101–115CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Osunlaja SO (1990) Effect of organic soil amendments on the incidence of stalk rot of maize caused by Macrophomina phaseolina and Fusarium moniliforme. J Basic Microbiol 30:753–757CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Patrick ZA, Toussoun TA (1965) Plant residue and organic amendments in relation to biological control. In: Baker KF, Synder WC (eds) Ecology of soil-borne plant pathogens. John Murray, London, pp 440–459Google Scholar
  103. Rao U, Goswami BK (1996) Comparative efficacy of soil amendments with carbofuran against root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita on cowpea. Pest Res J 8:87–89Google Scholar
  104. Richards BN (1976) Introduction to the soil ecosystem. Longman, LondonGoogle Scholar
  105. Ritzinger CHSP, McSorley R (1998) Effect of castor and velvetbean organic amendments on Meloidogyne arenaria in greenhouse experiments. J Nematol 30:624–631PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  106. Rodriguez-Kabana R, Jordan JW, Hollis JP (1965) Nematodes: biological control in rice fields: role of hydrogen sulfide. Science 148:524–526PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Rodrıguez-Kabana R, Robertson DG, Wells L, King PS, Weaver CF (1989) Crops uncommon to Alabama for the management of Meloidogyne arenaria in peanut. J Nematol 21:712–716PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  108. Rosenberg E, Zilber-Rosenberg I (2011) Symbiosis and development: the hologenome concept. Birth Defects Res C Embryo Today 93:56–66PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Rupe JC, Robbins RT, Becton CM, Sabbe WA, Gbur EE (1999) Vertical and temporal distribution of Fusarium solani and Heterodera glycines in fields with sudden death syndrome of soybean. Soil Biol Biochem 31:245–251CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Ryss AY, Kulinich OA, Sutherland JR (2011) Pine wilt disease: a short review of worldwide research. Forestry Sci China 13:1–11CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Safiuddin A, Shahab S (2012) Interactive effect of root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita and root-rot fungus, Rhizoctonia solani, on okra [Abelmoschus esculentus L.] Arch Phytopathol Plant Prot 45:660–666CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. San Martin R, Magunacelaya JC (2005) Control of plant–parasitic nematodes with extracts of Quillaja saponaria. Nematology 7:577–585CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Sayre RM, Patrick ZA, Thorpe JH (1964) Substances toxic to plant parasitic nematodes in decomposing plant residue. Phytopathology 54:905Google Scholar
  114. Siddiqui ZA, Husain SI (1991) Interaction of Meloidogyne incognita race-3 and Macrophomina phaseolina in a root-rot disease complex of chickpea. Nematol Mediterr 19:237–239Google Scholar
  115. Siddiqui IA, Shaukat SS, Khan GH, Zaki MJ (2002) Evaluation of Argemone mexicana for control of root-infecting fungi in tomato. J Phytopathol 150:321–329CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Sikora RA, Fernandez E (2005). Nematode parasites of vegetables. In: Luc M, Sikora RA, Bridge J (eds) Plant parasitic nematodes in subtropical and tropical agriculture, 2nd edn. CABI Publishing, p 319–392.Google Scholar
  117. Singh, S.K, Khan, M.R. and Khan, A.A. (1990). Control of root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita by organic amendment on tomato cv. Pusa Ruby. Indian Journal of Applied and Pure Biology, 5:21–23.Google Scholar
  118. Sitaramaiah K (1990) Mechanism of reduction of plant parasitic nematodes in soils amended with organic materials. In: Saxena SK, Khan MW, Rashid A, Khan RM (eds) Progress in plant nematology. CBS Publishers and Distributors, New Delhi, pp 263–265Google Scholar
  119. Sitaramaiah K, Pathak KN (1993) Nematode bacterial disease interactions. In: Khan MW (ed) Nematode interactions. Chapman and Hall, New York, pp 232–250CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Sneh, B, Jabaji-Hare, S, Neate, S. and Djist, G. (1996). Rhizoctonia species: taxonomy, molecular biology, ecology, pathology and disease control. Kluwer Academic Publishiers, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, Chapter V, pp. 247–404 and Chapter VIB, pp. 445–559.Google Scholar
  121. Spadaro D, Gullino LM (2005) Improving the efficacy of biocontrol agents against soilborne pathogens. Crop Prod 24:601–613CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Starr JL, Aist JR (1977) Early development of Pythium polymorphon on celery roots infected by Meloidogyne hapla. Phytopathology 67:497–501CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Starr JL, Martyn RD, Jeger MJ, Schilling K (1989) Effect of Meloidogyne incognita and Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum on plant mortaliry and yield of cotton. Phytopathology 79:640–646CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Sultana V, Ehteshamul-Haque S, Ara J, Akhtar M (2005) Comparative efficacy of brown, green and red seaweeds in the control of root infecting fungi and okra. Int J Environ Sci Technol 2:129–132CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Tariq M, Dawar S, Mehdi FS, Zaki MJ (2006) Use of Avicennia marina in the control of root infecting fungi on okra and mash bean. Pak J Bot 38:811–815Google Scholar
  126. Tariq M, Dawar S, Mehdi FS, Zaki MJ (2008) The effect of mangroves amendments to soil root rot and root-knot of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) Acta Agrobot 61:115–121CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Timchenko LS, Maiko TK (1989). Nematicidal properties of plants-antagonists of nematodes of decorative plants. Byulleten’ Vsesoyuznogo Instituta Gel’mintologii im. K.I. Skryabina No 50:81–84.Google Scholar
  128. Tiyagi SA, Alam MM (1995) Efficacy of oil seed cakes against plant-parasitic nematodes and soil inhabiting fungi on chickpea and mungbean. Bioresour Technol 51:233–239CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Vats R, Dalal MR (1997) Interaction between Rotylenchulus reniformis and Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. pisi on pea (Pisum sativum L.) Ann Biol 13:239–242Google Scholar
  130. Wheeler TA, Hake KD, Dever JK (2000) Survey of Meloidogyne incognita and Thielaviopsis basicola: their impact on cotton fruiting and producers’ management choices in infested fields. J Nematol 32:576–583PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  131. Widmer TL, Abawi GS (2000) Mechanism of suppression of Meloidogyne hapla and its damage by a green manure of sudangrass. Plant Dis 84:562–568CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Widmer TL, Abawi GS (2002) Relationship between levels of cyanide in sudangrass hybrids incorporated into soil and suppression of Meloidogyne hapla. J Nematol 34:16–22PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  133. Yadav SK, Babu S, Yadav MK, Singh K, Yadav GS, Pal S (2013) A review of organic farming for sustainable agriculture in northern India. Int J Agron. doi: 10.1155/2013/718145
  134. Zacheo G, Lamberti F, Arrigoni-Liso R, Arrigoni O (1977) Mitochondrial protein-hydroxyproline content of susceptible and resistant tomatoes infected by Meloidogyne incognita. Nematologica 23:471–476CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Zasada IA, Meyer SL, Halbrendt JH, Rice C (2005) Activity of hydroxamic acids from Secale cereale against the plant–parasitic nematodes Meloidogyne incognita and Xiphinema americanum. Phytopathology 95:1116–1121PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. Zasada IA, Rice CP, Meyer SLF (2007) Improving the use of rye (Secale cereale) for nematode management: potential to select cultivars based on Meloidogyne incognita host status and benzoxazinoid content. Nematology 9:53–60CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Section of Plant Pathology and Nematology, Department of BotanyAligarhIndia

Personalised recommendations