Conclusion

Chapter
Part of the SpringerBriefs in Linguistics book series (SBIL)

Abstract

The SMC has been in existence for more than three decades in Singapore. Various surveys conducted by the government have shown that the campaign has been successful in persuading Chinese dialect-speakers to discard the use of Chinese dialects and switch to speaking Mandarin. However, a main repercussion of the campaign is the decline in use of Chinese dialects within the local Chinese community. As a result of the SMC, a majority of elderly dialect speakers are unable to communicate with the ruling English-speaking elites in society due to their handicap in English and Mandarin. Although the campaign has been successful, there are some challenges that may threaten the impact of the campaign. Due to the encroachment of English in the home environment, younger generation of Chinese are aligning themselves with English more than Mandarin. In addition, an increasing number of students from English-speaking homes are also experiencing some difficulties in learning the Chinese language. This chapter discusses the various issues that arise as a result of the success of the SMC. The chapter concludes with some possible areas for future research on the SMC.

Keywords

Repercussions Decline Dialects Challenges Future research 

References

  1. Bokhorst-Heng, W. (1998). Language planning and management. In J. A. Foley (Ed.), English in new cultural contexts (pp. 287–309). Singapore: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  2. Bokhorst-Heng, W., Rubdy, R., McKay, S., & Alsagoff, L. (2010). Whose English? Language ownership in Singapore’s English language debates. In L. Lim, A. Pakir, & L. Wee (Eds.), English in Singapore (pp. 57–90). Hongkong: Hongkong University Press.Google Scholar
  3. Cavallaro, F., & Ng B. C. (2014). Language in Singapore: From multilingualism to English plus. In Y. Slaughter & J. Hajek (Eds.), Challenging the monolingual mindset. A book in memory of Michael Clyne (pp. 33–48). Bristol (UK): Multilingual Matters.Google Scholar
  4. Chan, B. (2006). Virtual communities and Chinese national identity. Journal of Chinese Overseas, 2(1), 1–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Chiew, S. K. (1980). Bilingualism and national identity: A Singapore case study. In A. Afendras & E. Kuo (Eds.), Language and society in Singapore (pp. 233–253). Singapore: Singapore University Press.Google Scholar
  6. Chinese Language Curriculum and Pedagogy Review Committee. (2004). Report of the Chinese language curriculum and pedagogy review committee. Singapore: Ministry of Education.Google Scholar
  7. Chua, B.-H. (1995). Communitarian ideology and democracy in Singapore. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  8. Fishman, J. A. (1991). Reversing language shift. Theoretical and empirical foundations of assistance to threatened languages. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.Google Scholar
  9. Goh, Y. S., & Lim, S. K. (2010). Global Mandarin. In V. Vaish (Ed.), Globalisation of language and culture (pp. 14–33). London: Continuum International Publishing Group.Google Scholar
  10. Huang, J. (2009). Dilemma and anguish of the Chinese-educated. In B. Welsh, J. Chin, A. Mahizhnan, & T. T. How (Eds.), Impressions of the Goh Chok Tong years in Singapore (pp. 336–349). Singapore: NUS Press.Google Scholar
  11. Kuo, C. Y., & Jernudd, B. H. (1994). Balancing macro and micro-sociolinguistic perspectives in language management: The case of Singapore. In T. Kandiah & J. Kwan-Terry (Eds.), English and language planning: A Southeast Asian contribution (pp. 70–89). Singapore: Times Academic Press.Google Scholar
  12. Lee, K. Y. (2011). My lifelong challenge: Singapore’s bilingual journey. Singapore: Straits Times Press.Google Scholar
  13. Lee, P. (2016, March 10). English most common home language, bilingualism also up: Government survey. http://www.straitstimes.com/singapore/. Accessed 3 April 2016.
  14. Lim, L. (2009). Beyond fear and loathing in SG: The real mother tongues and language policies in multilingual Singapore. In L. Lim & E. Low. (Eds.), Multilingual, globalizing Asia. AILA review 22 (pp. 52–71). Amsterdam: John Benjamin Publishing Company.Google Scholar
  15. Lim, L. (2010). Migrants and mother tongues: Extralinguistic forces in the ecology of Singapore. In L. Lim, A. Pakir, & L. Wee (Eds.), English in Singapore. Hongkong: Hongkong University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Mcdonough, J., & Mcdonough, S. (1997). Research methods for English language teachers. London: Arnold.Google Scholar
  17. Ng, P. C. L. (2014). Mother tongue education in Singapore: Concerns, issues and controversies. Journal of Current issues in language planning, 15(4), 1–15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Oon, C., & Kor, K. B. (2009). Was Chinese wrongly taught for thirty years? The Straits Times. http://www.news.asiaone.com/News/. Accessed 29 November 2009.
  19. Pakir, A. (1994). The role of language planning in education in Singapore. In A Hassan (Ed.), Language planning in SEA (pp. 148–178). Malaysia: Perpustakaan.Google Scholar
  20. Platt, J. (1980). Multilingualism, polyglossia, and code selection in Singapore. In E. A. Afendras & E. C. Y. Kuo (Eds.), Language and Society in Singapore (pp. 63–83). Singapore: Singapore University Press.Google Scholar
  21. Rubdy, R. (2005). Creative destruction: Singapore’s speak good English movement. World Englishes, 20(3), 341–356.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Shepherd, J. (2003). Striking a balance: The management of language in Singapore. Berlin: Peter Lang.Google Scholar
  23. Speak Mandarin Campaign. (2015). A Mandarin anchor in a changing world. http://mandarin.org.sg/en/content/anchor. Retrieved 30 September 2016.
  24. Teo, E. Speaking up for minorities. Asiaone. com. http://news.asiaone.com/News/Education/Story/A1Story20081124-102921.html. Accessed 24 November 2008.
  25. Trudgill, P. (1974). The social differentiation of English in Norwich. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  26. Vaish, V., Tan, T. K., Bokhorst-Heng, W., Hogan, D., & Kang, T. (2010). Language and social capital in Singapore. In L. Lim, A. Pakir, & L. Wee (Eds.), English in Singapore (pp. 159–180). Hongkong: Hongkong University Press.Google Scholar
  27. Wee, L. (2008). Linguistic instrumentalism in Singapore. In R. Rubdy & P. Tan (Eds.), Language as commodity: Global Structure, local marketplace (pp. 31–43). London: Continuum International Publishing.Google Scholar
  28. Zhao, S., & Liu, Y. (2007). Home language shift and its implications for language planning in Singapore: From the perspective of prestige planning. The Asia Pacific-Education Researcher, 16(2), 111–126.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.University of Niigata PrefectureNiigata-shiJapan

Personalised recommendations