Construct, Framework and Test Development—From IRT Perspectives

  • Margaret WuEmail author
  • Hak Ping Tam
  • Tsung-Hau Jen


In Chap. 1, the terms “latent trait” and “construct” are used to refer to the psycho-social attributes that are of interest to be measured.


Latent Variable Correct Answer Test Item Item Response Theory Latent Trait 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Supplementary material


  1. Adams RJ, Wu ML (2002) PISA 2000 technical report. OECD, ParisGoogle Scholar
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  5. Osterlind SJ (2002) Constructing test items: Multiple-choice, constructed-response, performance, and other formats, 2nd edn. Kluwer Academic Publishers, New YorkGoogle Scholar
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Further Reading

  1. Hogan TP, Murphy G (2007) Recommendations for preparing and scoring constructed response items: what the experts say. Appl Measur Educ 20(4):427–441CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Mellenbergh GJ (2011) A conceptual introduction to psychometrics: development, analysis, and application of psychological and educational tests. Eleven International Publishing, Hague, NetherlandsGoogle Scholar
  3. Netemeyer RG, Bearden WO, Sharma S (2003) Scaling procedures: issues and applications. Sage, Thousand Oaks, CACrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  4. Schmeiser CB, Welch CJ (2006) Test development. In: Brennan R (ed) Educational measurement, 4th edn. Praeger publishers, Westport, CT, pp 307–354Google Scholar
  5. Wu ML (2010) Measurement, sampling and equating errors in large-scale assessments. Educ Measur: Issues Pract 29(4):15–27CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.National Taiwan Normal UniversityTaipeiTaiwan
  2. 2.Educational Measurement SolutionsMelbourneAustralia
  3. 3.Graduate Institute of Science EducationNational Taiwan Normal UniversityTaipeiTaiwan
  4. 4.National Taiwan Normal UniversityTaipeiTaiwan

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