Advertisement

Observations and Explanations of X-Ray Emissions in Flaring Loops

  • Guangli HuangEmail author
  • Victor F. Melnikov
  • Haisheng Ji
  • Zongjun Ning
Chapter
  • 243 Downloads

Abstract

The studies on solar X-ray emission can provide a direct imaging about flaring loops, which is commonly composed of thermal and NT components, and the HXR emission is closely associated with the acceleration of energetic electrons, Aschwanden, Physics of the Solar Corona, 2004,[1], Dennis, Solar hard X-ray bursts, 1985, [2].

References

  1. 1.
    Aschwanden, M.J.: Physics of the Solar Corona. An Introduction. Chichester, UK, and Springer, Berlin: Published by Praxis Publishing Ltd (2004)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Dennis, B.R.: Solar hard X-ray bursts. Sol. Phys. 100, 465–490 (1985)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Parks, G.K., Winckler, J.R.: Sixteen-second periodic pulsations observed in the correlated microwave and energetic X-Ray emission from a solar flare. Astrophys. J. 155, L117–L120 (1969)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Kane, S.R., Anderson, K.A.: Spectral characteristics of impulsive solar-flare X-Rays \(\le \)10 KeV. Astrophys. J. 162, 1003–1018 (1970)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Benz, A.O.: Spectral features in solar hard X-ray and radio events and particle acceleration. Astrophys. J. 211, 270–280 (1977)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Brown, J.C., Loran, J.M.: Possible evidence for stochastic acceleration of electrons in solar hard X-ray bursts observed by SMM. Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 212, 245–255 (1985)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Lin, R.P., Johns, C.M.: Two accelerated electron populations in the 1980 June 27 solar flare. Astrophys. J. Lett. 417, L53–L56 (1993)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Fletcher, L., Hudson, H.S.: Spectral and spatial variations of flare hard X-ray footpoints. Sol. Phys. 210, 307–321 (2002)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Hudson, H. S., Fárník, F.: Spectral variations of flare hard X-rays. In: A Wilson (ed.) Solar variability: from core to outer frontiers. The 10th European Solar Physics Meeting, 9-14 September 2002, Prague, Czech Republic. ESA SP-506, Noordwijk: ESA Publications Division, vol. 1, pp. 261–264 (2002)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Grigis, P.C., Benz, A.O.: The spectral evolution of impulsive solar X-ray flares. Astron. Astrophys. 426, 1093–1101 (2004)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Grigis, P.C., Benz, A.O.: Spectral hardening in large solar flares. Astrophys. J. 683, 1180–1191 (2008)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Frost, K.J., Dennis, B.R.: Evidence from hard X-Rays for two-stage particle acceleration in a solar flare. Astrophys. J. 165, 655–659 (1971)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Cliver, E.W., Dennis, B.R., Kiplinger, A.L., Kane, S.R., Neidig, D.F., et al.: Solar gradual hard X-ray bursts and associated phenomena. Astrophys. J. 305, 920–935 (1986)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Kiplinger, A.L.: Comparative studies of Hard X-Ray spectral evolution in solar flares with high-energy proton events observed at earth. Astrophys. J. 453, 973–986 (1995)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Melnikov, V. F., Silva, A. V. R.: Temporal Evolution of Solar Flare Microwave and Hard X-Ray Spectra: Evidence for Electron Spectral Dynamics-II. In: Ramaty R, Mandzhavidze N (eds.), High Energy Solar Physics Workshop — Anticipating HESSI, ASP Conference Series, vol. 206, pp. 475–477 (2000)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Ning, Z.: Different behaviors between microwave and hard X-Ray spectral hardness in two solar flares. Astrophys. J. 671, L197–L200 (2007)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Masuda, S., Kosugi, T., Hara, H., Tsuneta, S., Ogawara, Y.: A loop-top hard X-ray source in a compact solar flare as evidence for magnetic reconnection. Nature 371, 495–497 (1994)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Petrosian, V., Donaghy, T.Q.: On the spatial distribution of hard X-Rays from solar flare loops. Astrophys. J. 527, 945–957 (1999)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Petrosian, V., Donaghy, T.Q., McTiernan, J.M.: Loop top hard X-Ray emission in solar flares: images and statistics. Astrophys. J. 569, 459–473 (2002)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Jiang, Y.W., Liu, S., Liu, W., Petrosian, V.: Evolution of the loop-top source of solar flares: heating and cooling processes. Astrophys. J. 638, 1140–1153 (2006)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Battaglia, M., Benz, A.O.: Relations between concurrent hard X-ray sources in solar flares. Astron. Astrophys. 456, 751–760 (2006)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Shao, C., Huang, G.: Comparative study of solar HXR flare spectra in looptop and footpoint sources. Astrophys. J. 691, 299–305 (2009a)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Shao, C., Huang, G.: Hard-soft-hard flare spectra and their energy dependence in spectral evolution of a solar hard X-Ray flare. Astrophys. J. Lett. 694, L162–L165 (2009)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Sui, L., Holman, G.D.: Evidence for the formation of a large-scale current sheet in a solar flare. Astrophys. J. 596, L251–L254 (2003)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Melnikov, V.F., Shibasaki, K., Reznikova, V.E.: Loop-top nonthermal microwave source in extended solar flaring loops. Astrophys. J. 580, L185–L188 (2002)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Petrosian, V., Liu, S.: Stochastic acceleration of electrons and protons. I. Acceleration by parallel-propagating waves. Astrophys. J. 610, 550–571 (2004)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Liu, W., Jiang, Y.W., Petrosian, V., Metcalf, T.R.: A Statistical Study of Limb Flares Observed by RHESSI: Imaging. American Astronomical Society, SPD meeting, Bulletin of the American Astronomical Society 35, 839 (2004)Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Liu, W., Liu, S., Jiang, Y.W., Petrosian, V.: RHESSI observation of chromospheric evaporation. Astrophys. J. 649, 1124–1139 (2006)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Zharkova, V.V., Gordovskyy, M.: The effect of the electric field induced by precipitating electron beams on hard X-Ray photon and mean electron spectra. Astrophys. J. 651, 553–565 (2006)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Song, Q.W., Huang, G.L., Nakajima, H.: Co-analysis of solar microwave and hard X-Ray spectral evolutions. I. In two frequency or energy ranges. Astrophys. J. 734, 113–124 (2011)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Bai, T., Ramaty, R.: Backscatter, anisotropy, and polarization of solar hard X-rays. Astrophys. J. 219, 705–726 (1978)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Minoshima, T., Yokoyama, T., Mitani, N.: Comparative analysis of nonthermal emissions and electron transport in a solar flare. Astrophys. J. 673, 598–610 (2008)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Huang, G.L., Li, J.P.: Co-analysis of solar microwave and hard X-Ray spectral evolutions. II. In three sources of a flaring loop. Astrophys. J. 740, 46–56 (2011)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Sakao, T.: Characteristics of solar flare hard X-ray sources as revealed with the Hard X-ray Telescope aboard the Yohkoh satellite. Ph.D. thesis, University of Tokyo (1994)Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Sakao, T., Kosugi, T., Masuda, S., Yaji, K., Inda-Koide, M., Makishima, K.: Characteristics of hard X-ray double sources in impulsive solar flares. Adv. Space Res. 17, 67–70 (1996)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Aschwanden, M.J., Fletcher, L., Sakao, T., Kosugi, T., Hudson, H.: Deconvolution of directly precipitating and trap-precipitating electrons in solar flare hard X-Rays. III.Yohkoh hard X-Ray telescope data analysis. Astrophys. J. 517, 977–989 (1999)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Asai, A., Shimojo, M., Isobe, H., Morimoto, T., Yokoyama, T., Shibasaki, K., Nakajima, H.: Periodic acceleration of electrons in the 1998 November 10 solar flare. Astrophys. J. 562, L103–L106 (2001)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Siarkowski, M., Falewicz, R.: Variations of the hard X-ray footpoint asymmetry in a solar flare. Astron. Astrophys. 428, 219–226 (2004)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Alexander, D., Metcalf, T.R.: Energy dependence of electron trapping in a solar flare. Sol. Phys. 210, 323–340 (2002)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Hanaoka, Y.: Double-loop configuration of solar flares. Sol. Phys. 173, 319–346 (1997)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Nishio, M., Yaji, K., Kosugi, T., Nakajima, H., Sakurai, T.: Magnetic field configuration in impulsive solar flares inferred from coaligned microwave/X-Ray images. Astrophys. J. 489, 976–991 (1997)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Lee, J., Gary, D.E.: Solar microwave bursts and injection pitch-angle distribution of flare electrons. Astrophys. J. 543, 457–471 (2000)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Gary, D.E., Hurford, G.J.: Coronal temperature, density, and magnetic field maps of a solar active region using the owens valley solar array. Astrophys. J. 420, 903–912 (1994)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Huang, G.L.: Initial pitch-angle of narrowly beamed electrons injected into a magnetic mirror, formation of trapped and precipitating electron distribution, and asymmetry of hard X-ray and microwave footpoint emissions. N. Astron. 12, 483–489 (2007)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Science Press, Beijing and Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Guangli Huang
    • 1
    Email author
  • Victor F. Melnikov
    • 2
  • Haisheng Ji
    • 1
  • Zongjun Ning
    • 1
  1. 1.Purple Mountain ObservatoryNanjingChina
  2. 2.Pulkovo ObservatoryRussian Academy of SciencesSaint-PetersburgRussia

Personalised recommendations