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Mycorrhizosphere: The Extended Rhizosphere and Its Significance

  • P. Priyadharsini
  • K. Rojamala
  • R. Koshila Ravi
  • R. Muthuraja
  • K. Nagaraj
  • T. MuthukumarEmail author
Chapter

Abstract

Plant roots influence soil through the release of carbon-rich exudates and rhizodeposits. The soil region influenced by plant roots is termed as rhizosphere. A unique community of microorganisms thrives in the rhizosphere whose activities enable plants to acquire various resources from soil for their growth and survival. Most plants in natural and agricultural ecosystems are associated with mycorrhizal fungi, which act as interlink between two different environments, the root and the soil. Mycorrhizal fungi play an important role in plant uptake of nutrients and protecting plants against various abiotic and biotic stresses. Like roots, mycorrhizal fungal hyphae also release exudates containing carbon into the surrounding soil, the hyphosphere that contributes to the formation of microbial communities and aggregation of soil particles. The soil region influenced by the mycorrhizal ro ots is the mycorrhizosphere. A wide range of microorganisms like bacteria, fungi, protozoa, nematodes, arthropods, etc., inhabit the mycorrhizosphere. These microorganisms interact with each other and with the plant system either directly or indirectly. The activities in the mycorrhizosphere include stimulation in the activities and populations of microorganisms, changes in pH, nutrient release from organic matter and nutrient cycling, suppression of plant pathogens, mycorrhizal formation, and changes in soil structure. An understanding of the functional diversity of microorganisms inhabiting the mycorrhizosphere is necessary to optimize soil microbial technology for the benefit of plant growth and health. This chapter describes the concept of rhizosphere, hyphosphere, and mycorrhizosphere and the various activities in these regions.

Keywords

Microbial Community Microbial Biomass Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Mycorrhizal Fungus Root Exudate 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • P. Priyadharsini
    • 1
  • K. Rojamala
    • 1
  • R. Koshila Ravi
    • 1
  • R. Muthuraja
    • 1
  • K. Nagaraj
    • 1
  • T. Muthukumar
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Root and Soil Biology Laboratory, Department of BotanyBharathiar UniversityCoimbatoreIndia

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