Advertisement

Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacteria Play a Role as Phytostimulators for Sustainable Agriculture

  • Sapna Gupta
  • Ruchi SethEmail author
  • Anima Sharma
Chapter

Abstract

During the past few decades, increasing use of chemical fertilizers has caused many negative effects in agriculture: development of infectious agent resistance, adverse impact on nontarget species, and reduction in crop yield resulting from the harmful effects of chemical fertilizers on soil quality parameters. Thus, the search for an eco-friendly approach has been emphasized during the past several years. Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) perform varied functions as (1) biofertilizers, (2) phytostimulators, (3) rhizoremediators, and (4) biopesticides. Plants do not seem to be axenic in natural conditions, and typically are influenced directly by completely different microorganisms such as rhizobacteria, of which several have the ability to provide phytohormones. This chapter sums up data relating to the synthesis, metabolism, regulation, physiological role, and agronomic impact of plant products made by plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria. We have included information regarding the auxins, cytokinins, gibberellins, and ethylene.

Keywords

Biofertilizers Auxins Cytokinins Gibberellins Ethylenes 

Notes

Acknowledgments

Some of the research in the present review has been supported in part by JECRC University, Jaipur, and Rajasthan. The author acknowledges Mr. Anukool Vaishnav for his careful review of the content and for improvement of the text. The author also thanks Mr. Mohit Agrawal and Mr. Gaurav Kaushik for valuable suggestions and guidance.

References

  1. Abeles FB, Morgan PW, Saltveit ME (1992) Ethylene in plant biology. Academic, San DiegoGoogle Scholar
  2. Agrios GN (1988) Plant pathology, 3rd edn. Academic, San DiegoGoogle Scholar
  3. Ahemad M, Khan MS, Zaidi A, Wani PA (2009) Remediation of herbicides contaminated soil using microbes. In: Khan MS, Zaidi A, Musarrat J (eds) Microbes in sustainable agriculture. Nova Science, New York, p 358Google Scholar
  4. Ahmad F, Ahmad I, Khan MS (2008) Screening of free-living rhizospheric bacteria for their multiple plant growth promoting activities. Microbiol Res 163:173–181CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Ali B, Sabri AN, Ljung K, Hasnain S (2009) Auxin production by plant associated bacteria: impact on endogenous IAA content and growth of Triticum aestivum L. Lett Appl Microbiol 48:542–547CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Antoun H, Prévost D (2005) Ecology of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria. In: Siddiqui ZA (ed) PGPR: biocontrol and biofertilization. Springer, Dordrecht, pp 1–38Google Scholar
  7. Arkhipova TN, Veselov SU, Melentiev AI, Martynenko EV, Kudoyarova GR (2005) Ability of bacterium Bacillus subtilis to produce cytokinins and to influence the growth and endogenous hormone content of lettuce plants. Plant Soil 272:201–209CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Arkhipova TN, Prinsen EA, Veselov SU, Martinenko EV, Melentiev AI, Kudoyarova GR (2007) Cytokinin producing bacteria enhance plant growth in drying soil. Plant Soil 292:305–315CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Arshad M, Frankenberger WTJ (1991) Microbial production of plant hormones. In: Keister DL, Cregan PB (eds) The rhizosphere and plant growth. Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, pp 327–334CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Arshad M, Frankenberger R (1993) Microbial production of plant growth regulators. In: Meeting BF (ed) Soil microbial ecology. Dekker, New York, pp 307–347Google Scholar
  11. Arshad M, Frankenberger WT (2002) Ethylene: agricultural sources and applications. Kluwer Academic, New York, pp 342CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Atzhorn R, Crozier A, Wheeler CT, Sandberg G (1998) Production of gibberellins and indole-3-acetic acid by Rhizobium phaseoli in relation to nodulation of Phaseolus vulgaris roots. Planta 175:532–538CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Barea JM, Pozo MJ, Azcon R, Aguilar CA (2005) Microbial co-operation in the rhizosphere. J Exp Bot 56:1761–1778CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Bastian F, Cohen A, Piccoli P, Luna V, Baraldi R, Bottini R (1998) Production of indole-3-acetic acid and gibberellins A1and A3 by Acetobacter diazotrophicus and Herbaspirillum seropedicae in chemically defined media. Plant Growth Regul 24:7–11CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Belimov AA, Safranova VI, Mimura T (2002) Response of spring rape (Brassica napus) to inoculation with PGPR containing ACC-deaminase depends on nutrient status of plant. Can J Microbiol 48:189–199CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Bloemberg GV, Lugtenberg BJ (2001) Molecular basis of plant growth promotion and biocontrol by rhizobacteria. Curr Opin Plant Biol 4:343–350CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Bottini R, Fulchieri M, Pearce D, Pharis R (1989) Identification of gibberellins A1, A3, and Iso-A3 in cultures of A. lipoferum. J Plant Physiol 90:45–47CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Bottini R, Cassán F, Piccoli P (2004) Gibberellin production by bacteria and its involvement in plant growth promotion and yield increase. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 65:497–503CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Burg S, Burg P (1968) Ethylene formation in pea seedlings: its relation to the inhibition of bud growth caused by indole-acetic acid. Plant Physiol 43:1069–1074CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  20. Çakmakçi R, Dönmez F, Şahin F (2006) Growth promotion of plants by plant growth promoting rhizobacteria under greenhouse and two different field soil conditions. Soil Biol Biochem 38:1482–1487CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Cassan F, Bottini R, Schneider G, Piccoli P (2001a) Azospirillum brasilense and Azospirillum lipoferum hydrolyze conjugates of GA20 and metabolize the resultant aglycones to GA1 in seedlings of rice dwarf mutants. Plant Physiol 125:2053–2058CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  22. Cassan F, Lucangeli C, Bottini R, Piccoli P (2001b) Azospirillum spp. metabolize [17,17-2H2] gibberellin A20 to [17,17-2H2] gibberellin A1 in vivo in dry rice mutant seedlings. Plant Cell Physiol 42:763–767CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Chandler D, Davidson G, Grant WP, Greaves J, Tatchell GM (2008) Microbial biopesticides for integrated crop management: an assessment of environmental and regulatory sustainability. Trends Food Sci Technol 19(5):275–283CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Chen H, Quails RG, Miller GC (2002) Adaptive responses of Lepidium latifolium to soil flooding: biomass allocation, adventitious rooting, aerenchyma formation and ethylene production. Environ Exp Bot 48:119–128CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Choudhary DK (2012) Microbial rescue to plant under habitat-imposed abiotic and biotic stresses. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 96:1137–1155CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Choudhary DK, Kasotia A, Jain S, Vaishnav A, Kumari S, Sharma KP, Varma A (2015) Bacterial-mediated tolerance and resistance to plants under abiotic and biotic stresses. Plant Growth Regul 35:276–300CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Costacurta A, Vanderleyden J (1995) Synthesis of phytohormones by plant-associated bacteria. Crit Rev Microbiol 21:1–18CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Davies P (1995) Plant hormones, physiology, biochemistry and molecular biology. Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, pp 833Google Scholar
  29. Dobbelaere S, Croonenborghs A, Thys A, Vande Broek A, Vanderleyden J (1999) Phytostimulatory effect of Azospirillum brasilense wild type and mutant strains altered in IAA production on wheat. Plant Soil 212:153–162CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Dobbelaere S, Vanderleyden J, Okon Y (2003) Plant growth promoting effects of diazotrophs in the rhizosphere. Crit Rev Plant Sci 22:107–149CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Duan J, Miiller KM, Charles TC, Vesely S, Glick BR (2009) 1-Aminocyclopropane-l-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase genes in rhizobia from southern Saskatchewan. Microb Ecol 57:423–436CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Esquivel-Cote R, Ramírez-Gama R, Tsuzuki-Reyes G, Orozco-Segovia A, Huante P (2010) Azospirillum lipoferum strain AZm5 containing 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid deaminase improves early growth of tomato seedlings under nitrogen deficiency. Plant Soil 337:65–75CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Fuentes-Ramírez LE, Caballero-Mellado J (2006) Bacterial biofertilizers. In: Siddiqui ZA (ed) PGPR: biocontrol and biofertilization. Springer, Dordrecht, pp 143–172CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Ge L, Yong JWH, Goh NK, Chia LS, Tan SN, Ong ES (2005) Identification of kinetin and kinetin riboside in coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) water using a combined approach of liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry, high performance liquid chromatography and capillary electrophoresis. J Chromatogr 829:26–34Google Scholar
  35. Ghosh S, Penterman JN, Little RD, Chavez R, Click BR (2003) Three newly isolated plant growth-promoting bacilli facilitate the seedling growth of canola, Brassica campestris. Plant Physiol Biochem 41:277–281CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Ghosh S, Sengupta C, Maiti TK, Basu PS (2008) Production of 3-indolylacetic acid in root nodules and culture by a Rhizobium species isolated from root nodules of the leguminous pulse Phaseolus mungo. Folia Microbiol 53:351–355CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Glick BR, Penrose DM, Li J (1998) A model for lowering plant ethylene concentration by plant growth promoting rhizobacteria. J Theor Biol 190:63–68CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Glick B, Patten C, Holguin G, Penrose D (1999) Biochemical and genetic mechanisms used by plant growth promoting bacteria. Imperial College Press, London, 267ppCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Glick BR, Todorovic B, Czarny J, Cheng Z, Duan J, McConkey B (2007) Promotion of plant growth by bacterial ACC deaminase. Crit Rev Plant Sci 26:227–242CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Govindasamy V, Senthilkumar M, Gaikwad K, Annapurna K (2008) Isolation and characterization of ACC deaminase gene from two plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria. Curr Microbiol 57:312–317CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Grichko VP, Glick BR (2001) Amelioration of flooding stress by ACC deaminase-containing plant growth-promoting bacteria. Plant Physiol Biochem 39:11–17CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Guo J-H, Qi H-Y, Guo Y-H, Ge H-L, Gong L-Y, Zhang L-X (2004) Biocontrol of tomato wilt by plant growth promoting rhizobacteria. Biol Control 29:66–72CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Gutierrez-Manero FJ, Ramos-Solano B, Probanza A, Mehouachi J, Tadeo FR, Talon M (2001) The plant growth promoting rhizobacteria Bacillus pumilis and Bacillus licheniformis produce high amounts of physiologically active gibberellins. Physiol Plant 111:206–211CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Halda-Alija L (2003) Identification of indole-3-acetic acid producing freshwater wetland rhizosphere bacteria associated with Juncus effusus L. Can J Microbiol 49:781–787CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Hariprasad P, Niranjana SR (2009) Isolation and characterization of phosphate solubilizing rhizobacteria to improve plant health of tomato. Plant Soil 316:13–24CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Hartmann A, Rothballer M, Schmid M, Lorenz H (2008) A pioneer in rhizosphere microbial ecology and soil bacteriology research. Plant Soil 312:7–14CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Hedden P (1997) The oxidases of gibberellin biosynthesis: their function and mechanism. Physiol Plant 101:709–719CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Hedden P, Kamiya Y (1997) Gibberellin biosynthesis: enzymes, genes and their regulation. Annu Rev Plant Physiol Plant Mol Biol 48:431–460CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Hiltner L (1904) Ueber neuere erfahrungen und probleme auf dem gebiete der bodenbakteriologie und unter besonderer berucksichtigung der grundungung und brache. Arb Deut Landw Gesell 98:59–78Google Scholar
  50. Hiroya K, Itoh S, Sakamoto T (2004) Development of an efficient procedure for indole ring synthesis from 2-ethynylaniline derivatives catalyzed by Cu (II) salts and its application to natural product synthesis. J Org Chem 69:1126–1136CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Jain S, Vaishnav A, Kasotia A, Kumari S, Choudhary DK (2014) Plant growth-promoting bacteria elicited induced systemic resistance and tolerance in plants. Emerg Technol Manage Crop Stress Tolerance 109Google Scholar
  52. Janzen R, Rood S, Dormaar J, McGill W (1992) Azospirillum brasilense produces gibberellins in pure culture on chemically defined medium and in co-culture on straw. Soil Biol Biochem 24:1061–1064CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Jetiyanon K, Kloepper JW (2002) Mixtures of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria for induction of systemic resistance against multiple plant diseases. Biol Control 24:285–291CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Johnson B, Ecker JR (1998) The ethylene gas signal: transduction pathway. Annu Rev Genet 32:227–254CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Kang SM, Khan AL, Hamayun M, Shinwari ZK, Kim YH, Joo GJ, Lee IJ (2012) Acinetobacter calcoaceticus ameliorated plant growth and influenced gibberellins and functional biochemicals. Pak J Bot 44(1):365–372Google Scholar
  56. Kang SM, Khan AL, Hyun YY, Kim JG, Kamran M, Lee IJ (2014) Gibberellin production by newly isolated strain Leifsonia soli SE134 and its potential to promote plant growth. J Microbiol Biotechnol 24:106–112CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Karadeniz A, Topcuoglu SF, Inan S (2006) Auxin, gibberelin, cytokinin and abscisic acid production in some bacteria. World J Microbiol Biotechnol 22:1061–1064CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Kloepper JW, Okon Y (1994) Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (other systems). In: Okon Y (ed) Azospirillum/plant associations. CRC Press, Boca Raton, pp 111–118Google Scholar
  59. Kloepper JW, Lifshitz R, Zablotwicz RM (1989) Free-living bacterial inocula for enhancing crop productivity. Trends Biotechnol 7:39–44CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Kloepper JW, Zablotowick RM, Tipping EM, Lifshitz R (1991) Plant growth promotion mediated by bacterial rhizosphere colonizers. In: Keister DL, Cregan PB (eds) The rhizosphere and plant growth. Kluwer, Dordrecht, pp 315–326Google Scholar
  61. Korasick DA, Enders TA, Strader LC (2013) Auxin biosynthesis and storage forms. J Exp Bot 64:2541–2555CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  62. Krall L, Raschke M, Zenk MH, Baron C (2002) The Tzs protein from Agrobacterium tumefaciens C58 produces zeatin riboside 50-phosphate from 4-hydroxy-3-methyl-2-(E)-butenyl diphosphate and AMP. FEBS Lett 527:315–318CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Kuhajek JM, Jeffers SN, Slattery M, Wedge DE (2003) A rapid microbioassay for discovery of novel fungicides for Phytophthora sp. Phytopathology 93:46–53CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Kumar PKR, Lonsane BK (1989) Microbial production of gibberellins: state of the art. Adv Appl Microbiol 34:29–139CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Kumari S, Vaishnav A, Jain S, Varma A, Choudhary DK (2016) Induced drought tolerance through wild and mutant bacterial strain Pseudomonas simiae in mung bean (Vigna radiata L.). World J Microbiol Biotechnol 32:1–10CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Letham D (1963) Zeatin: a factor inducing cell division from Zea mays. Life Sci 8:569–573CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Lindberg T, Granhall U (1984) Isolation and characterization of nitrogen-fixing bacteria from the rhizosphere of temperate cereals and forage grasses. Appl Environ Microbiol 48:683–689PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  68. Lindberg T, Granhall U (1986) Acetylene reduction in gnotobiotic cultures with rhizosphere bacteria and wheat. Plant Soil 92:171–180CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Lucas GJA, Probanza A, Ramos B, Colon Flores JJ, Gutierrez Mañero FJ (2004a) Effect of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPRs) on biological nitrogen fixation, nodulation and growth of Lupinus albus L. cv. Multolupa. Eng Life Sci 7:1–77Google Scholar
  70. Lucas GJA, Probanza A, Ramos B, Palomino MR, Gutierrez Mañero FJ (2004b) Effect of inoculation of Bacillus licheniformis on tomato and pepper. Agronomie 24:169–176CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. MacFaddin JF (1976) Biochemical tests for identification of medical bacteria. Williams & Wilkins, BaltimoreGoogle Scholar
  72. MacMillan J (2002) Occurrence of gibberellins in vascular plants, fungi, and bacteria. J Plant Growth Regul 20:387–442CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Mayak S, Tirosh T, Click BR (2004) Plant growth-promoting bacteria that confer resistance to water stress in tomatoes and peppers. Plant Sci 166:525–530CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Miller C, Skoog F, Von Saltza M, Strong F (1955) Kinetin, a cell division factor from deoxyribonucleic acid. J Am Chem Soc 77:1392CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Novák O, Tarkowski P, Tarkowská D, Doležal K, Lenobel R, Strnad M (2003) Quantitative analysis of cytokinins in plants by liquid chromatography-single-quadrupole mass spectrometry. Anal Chim Acta 480:207–218CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Oldroyd GED (2007) A hormone-signaling pathway is crucial to the ability of certain plants to form nodules when stimulated by nitrogen fixing bacteria. Science 315:52–53CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. Ovakim Li J, Charles TC, Glick BR (2000) An ACC deaminase minus mutant of Enterobacter cloacae UW4 no longer promotes root elongation. Curr Microbiol 41:101–105CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Pandya ND, Desai PV (2014) Screening and characterization of GA3 producing Pseudomonas monteilii and its impact on plant growth promotion. Int J Curr Microbiol Appl Sci 3:110–115Google Scholar
  79. Patten CL, Glick BR (1996) Bacterial biosynthesis of indole-3-acetic acid. Can J Microbiol 42:207–220CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. Patten CL, Glick BR (2002) Role of Pseudomonas putida indole-acetic acid in development of the host plant root system. Appl Environ Microbiol 68:3795–3801CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  81. Pearce D, Koshioka M, Pharis R (1994) Chromatography of gibberellins. J Chromatogr 658:91–122CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Penrose DM, Glick BR (2003) Methods for isolating and characterizing ACC deaminase containing plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria. Physiol Plant 18:10–15CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Piccoli P, Masciarelli O, Bottini R (1996) Metabolism of 17,[2H2]-gibberellins A4, A9, and A20 by Azospirillum lipoferum in chemically-defined culture medium. Symbiosis 21:167–178Google Scholar
  84. Pirlak L, Kose M (2009) Effects of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria on yield and some fruit properties of strawberry. J Plant Nutr 32:1173–1184CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Podile AR, Kishore GK (2006) Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria. In: Gnanamanickam SS (ed) Plant-associated bacteria. Springer, New York, pp 195–230CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Raj SN, Deepak SA, Basavaraju P, Shetty HS, Reddy MS, Kloepper J (2003) Comparative performance of formulations of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria in growth promotion and suppression of downy mildew in pearl millet. Crop Prot 22:579–588CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Reed MLE, Click BR (2005) Growth of canola (Brassica napus) in the presence of plant growth-promoting bacteria and either copper or polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Can J Microbiol 51:1061–1969CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. Rood S, Pharis R (1987) Evidence for reversible conjugation of gibberellins in higher plants. In: Schreiber H, Schutte H, Semder G (eds) Conjugated plant hormones. Structure, metabolism and function. Proceedings of the international symposium on conjugated plant hormones: structure, metabolism and function, Gera, Germany. VEB Deustcher Verlag der Wissenschaften, Berlin, pp 183–190Google Scholar
  89. Ryu CM, Farag MA, Hu CH, Reddy MS, Wei HX, Pare PW, Kloepper JW (2003) Bacterial volatiles promote growth in Arabidopsis. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 100:4927–4932CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  90. Sakakibara H (2006) Cytokinins: activity, biosynthesis, and translocation. Annu Rev Plant Biol 57:431–449CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. Sembdner G, Gross D, Liebisch H, Schneider G (1980) Biosynthesis and metabolism of plant hormones. In: MacMillan J (ed) Encyclopedia of plant physiology, New series. Springer, Berlin, pp 281–444Google Scholar
  92. Serdyuk OP, Smolygna LD, Ianova EP, Adanin M (2003) Phototrophic purple bacterium Chromatium minutissimum does not synthesize cytokinins under optimal growth conditions. Dokl Biochem Biophys 392:700–702CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Shoebitz M, Ribaudo CM, Pardo MA, Cantore ML, Ciampi L, Curá JA (2009) Plant growth promoting properties of a strain of Enterobacter ludwigii isolated from Lolium perenne rhizosphere. Soil Biol Biochem 41:1768–1774CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Spaepen S, Vanderleyden J, Remans R (2007) Indole-3-acetic acid in microbial and microorganism–plant signaling. FEMS Microbiol Rev 31:425–448CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. Srivastava LM (2002) Plant growth and development: hormones and environment. Academic, San DiegoGoogle Scholar
  96. Swain MR, Naskar SK, Ray RC (2007) Indole-3-acetic acid production and effect on sprouting of yam (Dioscorea rotundata L.) minisetts by Bacillus subtilis isolated from culturable cow dung microflora. Pol J Microbiol 56:103–110PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. Teale WW, Paponov I, Palme K (2006) Auxin in action: signalling, transport and the control of plant growth and development. Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol 7:847–859CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. Tsavkelova EA, Klimova SY, Cherdyntseva TA, Netrusov AI (2006) Microbial producers of plant growth stimulators and their practical use: a review. Appl Biochem Microbiol 42:117–126CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Vaishnav A, Jain S, Kasotia A, Kumari S, Gaur RK, Choudhary DK (2014) Molecular mechanism of benign microbe-elicited alleviation of biotic and abiotic stresses for plants. In: Approaches to plant stress and their management. Springer, New Delhi, pp 281–295CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Werner T, Motyka V, Strnad M, Schmulling T (2001) Regulation of plant growth by cytokinin. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 98:10487–10492CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  101. Yang J, Zhang J, Huang Z, Wang Q, Zhu L, Liu L (2002) Correlation of cytokinin levels in the endosperms and roots with cell number and cell division activity during endosperm development in rice. Ann Bot 90:369–377CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  102. Zahir AZ, Arshad M, Frankenberger WT (2004) Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria: application and perspectives in agriculture. Adv Agron 81:97–168CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Zaidi A, Khan MS, Ahemad M, Oves M (2009) Plant growth promotion by phosphate solubilizing bacteria. Acta Microbiol Immunol Hung 56:263–284CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.JECRC UniversityJaipurIndia

Personalised recommendations