Multilevel Cell MRAMs

  • Brajesh Kumar KaushikEmail author
  • Shivam Verma
  • Anant Aravind Kulkarni
  • Sanjay Prajapati
Part of the SpringerBriefs in Applied Sciences and Technology book series (BRIEFSAPPLSCIENCES)


Over the past three decades, several memory technologies have made their place in the market with varying degrees of commercial success, such as erasable programmable read-only memory (EPROM), electrically erasable programmable read-only memory (EEPROM), static random-access memory (SRAM), dynamic RAM (DRAM), and NAND/NOR flash memories, with varying degrees of commercial success. In general, computer systems employ a memory hierarchy using different types of memories used at different levels. At the highest level, on-chip high speed cache static-RAMs (SRAMs) are used; whereas, at the next higher level, high density, low power off-chip DRAMs are used as a main memory.


Read Operation Free Layer Switching Current Perpendicular Magnetic Anisotropy Read Current 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Brajesh Kumar Kaushik
    • 1
    Email author
  • Shivam Verma
    • 1
  • Anant Aravind Kulkarni
    • 1
  • Sanjay Prajapati
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Electronics and Communication EngineeringIndian Institute of Technology RoorkeeRoorkeeIndia

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