Sun Yat-sen and His Unincorporated Cement Works: Revolutionaries in Business

  • Humphrey Ko


This chapter examines the chaotic period when the father of modern China, Dr. Sun Yat-sen, went to base himself in Guangzhou city. There, he endeavoured to raise an army for a military expedition to unify China. Sun Yat-sen took advantage of the new Municipal Autonomy System where cities were declared to be legal persons. The creation of the Guangzhou City Council in 1921 gave Sun Yat-sen borrowing powers for the military in the name of city development. Unfortunately, this chapter shows that using the city as the corporate vehicle to manage industries was problematic. Attempts to control the market through legislation were also fraught with complex unforeseen difficulties. Despite this, the government was committed to subsume economic development under one incorporated city.


Provincial Government Qing Dynasty Cement Plant Cement Industry City Government 
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Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Humphrey Ko
    • 1
  1. 1.University China CentreOxfordUK

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