Advertisement

Child Shyness and Reading Ability in Encounters with Difficult Words During Shared Book Reading

  • Mary Ann EvansEmail author
  • Kailey Pearl Ennis
Chapter
Part of the International Perspectives on Early Childhood Education and Development book series (CHILD, volume 17)

Abstract

This study investigated the association of children's shyness and their ability to read words with parent and child behaviours when children encounter difficult words during book reading. Grade one children and their parents were observed reading storybooks together that the child could read with assistance. Children’s shyness and their ability to decode unfamiliar nonwords (a measure of reading ability) were also assessed by the researchers. When reading the books with their parents, shyer children and poorer readers less often attempted to read words that they found difficult. Parents of shyer children and of less skilled readers responded to this and other reading errors by providing more context cues and fewer encouragements to try the word again. Parents also more often simply told shyer children the word, and offered poorer readers less assistance to help them decode the word using graphophonemic clues. In addition, boys more frequently guessed at difficult words, while girls were more likely to pause or request assistance. However parent behaviour did not differ for boys and girls. The findings demonstrate a new facet of the way in which inhibition in shy children and protective parenting of them are manifested, and suggests a mechanism for the negative association between shyness and academic achievement found in previous studies. The findings also highlight the need for teachers and parents to be more reflective in their book reading interactions with shy children. Suggestions for working with shy children are provided.

Keywords

Word Reading Reading Skill Reading Ability Book Reading Decode Skill 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Notes

Acknowledgments

Thank you is extended to the families for their participation in this study and the school boards in which they were enrolled for their support. Appreciation is also extended to the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada for its grant to the first author to fund this research, and to research assistants Kate Spere, Jubilea Mansell and Diana Audet for their assistance with data collection.

References

  1. Allington, R. (1980). Teacher interruption behaviours during primary-grade oral reading. Journal of Educational Psychology, 72, 371–377. doi: 10.1037/0022-0663.72.3.371.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Altman, D. G. (1991). Practical statistics for medical research. London: Chapman and Hall.Google Scholar
  3. Asendorpf, J. B., & Meier, G. H. (1993). Personality effects on children’s speech in everyday life: Sociability-mediated exposure and shyness-mediated reactivity to social situations. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 64, 1072–1083. doi: 10.1037/0022-3514.64.6.1072.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Audet, D., Evans, M. A., Williamson, K., & Reynolds, K. (2008). Shared book reading: Parental goals across the primary grades and goal-behaviour relationships in junior kindergarten. Early Education and Development, 19, 112–137. doi: 10.1080/10409280701839189.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Barrett, P. A., Rapee, R. M., Dadds, M. M., & Ryan, S. M. (1996). Family enhancement of cognitive style in anxious and aggressive children. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 24, 187–204. doi: 10.1007/BF01441484.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Biemiller, A. (1970). The development of the use of graphic and contextual information as children learn to read. Reading Research Quarterly, 6, 75–96. doi: 10.2307/747049.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Brenner, B. (1990). Moon boy. New York: Byron Press.Google Scholar
  8. Bus, A., Belsky, J., van IJzendoorn, M., & Crnic, K. (1997). Attachment and book reading patterns: A study of mothers, fathers, and their toddlers. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 12, 81–98. doi: 10.1016/S0885-2006(97)90044-2.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bus, A., & Plomin, R. A. (1984). Temperament: Early developing personality traits. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  10. Byrne, B. (1998). The child’s acquisition of the alphabetic principle. East Sussex, UK: Taylor and Francis.Google Scholar
  11. Byrnes, J. P., Miller, D. C., & Schafer, W. D. (1999). Gender differences in risk taking: A meta-analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 125, 367–383. doi: 10.1037/0033-2909.125.3.367.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Cairns, R. B., Elder, G. H., & Costello, E. J. (1996). Developmental psychobiological theory. Developmental science (Cambridge studies in social and emotional development, pp. 63–77). New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  13. Campbell, R. (1982). Dear zoo. Toronto, ON: Puffin.Google Scholar
  14. Chinn, C. A., Waggoner, M. A., & Anderson, R. C. (1993). Situated actions during reading lessons: A miscroanalysis of oral reading error episodes. American Educational Research Journal, 30, 361–392. doi: 10.3102/00028312030002361.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Coplan, R. J., & Arbeau, K. A. (2008). The stresses of a “brave new world”: Shyness and social adjustment in kindergarten. Journal of Research in Childhood Education, 22, 377–389. doi: 10.1080/02568540809594634.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Coplan, R. J., Arbeau, K. A., & Armer, M. (2008). Don’t fret, be supportive! Maternal characteristics linking child shyness to psychosocial and school adjustment in kindergarten. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 36, 359–371. doi: 10.1007/s10802-007-9183-7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Coplan, R. J., Gavinski-Molina, M.-H., Lagace-Seguin, D. G., & Wichmann, C. (2001). When girls versus boys play alone: Nonsocial play and adjustment in kindergarten. Developmental Psychology, 37, 464–474. doi: 10.1037/0012-1649.37.4.464.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Coxe, M. (1996). Cat traps. Toronto, ON: Random House.Google Scholar
  19. Crozier, R., & Badawood, R. (2009). Shyness, vocabulary and children’s reticence in Saudi Arabian preschools. Infant and Child Development, 18(Special Issue), 255–270. doi: 10.1002/icd.623.
  20. Crowe, L. K. (2003). Comparison of two reading feedback strategies in improving the oral and written language performance of children with language-learning disabilities. American Journal of Speech-Language Pathology, 12, 16–27. doi: 10.1044/1058-0360(2003/049).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Currey, A. (1996). Tickling tigers. London: Hodder Children’s Books.Google Scholar
  22. Dadds, M. R., Barrett, P. M., Rapee, R. M., & Ryan, S. (1996). Family process and child anxiety and aggression: An observational analysis. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 24, 715–734. doi: 10.1007/BF01664736.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Davis, B., Evans, M. A., & Reynolds, K. P. (2010). Child miscues and parental feedback during shared alphabet book reading and relations with child literacy skills. Scientific Studies of Reading, 14, 341–364. doi: 10.1080/10888431003623504.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. De Vries, J., & Zimmermann, W. (1992). In my backyard. Toronto, ON: Scholastic.Google Scholar
  25. Edison, S. C., Evans, M. A., McHolm, A. E., Cunningham, C. E., Nowakowski, M. E., Boyle, M., et al. (2011). An investigation of control among parents of selectively mute, anxious, and non-anxious children. Child Psychiatry and Human Development, 42, 270–290. doi: 10.1007/s10578-010-0214-1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Edwards, R. (1989). Five silly fishermen. New York: Random House.Google Scholar
  27. Ehri, L. (1991). Development of the ability to read words. In R. Barr, M. Kamil, P. Mosenthal, & P. Pearson (Eds.), Handbook of reading research volume two (pp. 383–417). New York: Longman.Google Scholar
  28. Engfer, A. (1993). Antecedents and consequences of shyness in boys and girls: A 6-year longitudinal study. In K. H. Rubin & J. B. Asendorpf (Eds.), Social withdrawal, inhibition and shyness in childhood (pp. 49–79). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  29. Evans, M. A. (1987). Discourse characteristics of reticent children. Applied Psycholinguistics, 8, 171–184. doi: 10.1017/S0142716400000199.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Evans, M. A. (2001). Shyness in the classroom and home. In W. R. Crozier & L. E. Alden (Eds.), International handbook of social anxiety: Concepts, research and interventions relating to the self and shyness (pp. 159–183). Chichester, UK: Wiley.Google Scholar
  31. Evans, M. A. (2010). Language performance, academic performance and signs of shyness: A comprehensive review. In K. H. Rubin & R. J. Coplan (Eds.), The development of shyness and social withdrawal. New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  32. Evans, M. A., & Audet, D. (2014, July). Parent beliefs and goals about shared book reading shape their behavior. In M. A. Evans (Chair), Parent and teacher beliefs: Do they matter for emergent literacy. Santa Fe, New Mexico: Society for the Scientific Study of Reading.Google Scholar
  33. Evans, M. A., Barraball, L., & Eberle, T. (1998). Parental responses to miscues during child-to-parent book reading. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 19, 67–84. doi: 10.1016/S0193-3973(99)80028-8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Evans, M. A., & Bienert, H. (1992). Control and paradox in teacher conversations with shy children. Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science, 24, 502–516. doi: 10.1037/h0078758.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Evans, M. A., Moretti, S., Shaw, D., & Fox, M. (2003). Parent scaffolding in children’s oral reading. Early Education and Development, 14, 363–388. doi: 10.1207/s15566935eed1403_5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Gilman, P. (1990). Grandma and the pirates. Toronto, ON: Scholastic.Google Scholar
  37. Goodman, K. S. (1969). Analysis of oral reading miscues: Applied psycholinguistics. Reading Research Quarterly, 5I, 9–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Gordon, E. M., & Thomas, A. (1967). Children’s behavioral style and the teacher’s appraisal of their intelligence. Journal of School Psychology, 5, 292–300.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Graves, K. (1994). I can’t sleep. Cypress, CA: Creative Teaching Press.Google Scholar
  40. Greco, L. A., & Morris, T. L. (2002). Paternal child-rearing style and child social anxiety: Investigation of child perceptions and actual father behaviour. Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioural Assessment, 24, 259–267. doi: 10.1023/A:1020779000183.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Heubusch, J. D., & Lloyd, J. W. (1998). Corrective feedback in oral reading. Journal of Behavioural Education, 8, 63–79. doi: 10.1023/A:1022864707734.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Hoffman, J. V., & Clements, R. (1984). Reading miscues and teacher verbal feedback. The Elementary School Journal, 84, 423–439. doi: 10.1086/461374.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Hoffman, J. V., O’Neal, S., Kastler, L. A., Clements, R. O., Segal, K. W., & Nash, M. F. (1984). Guided oral reading and miscues focussed verbal feedback in second-grade classrooms. Reading Research Quarterly, 19, 367–384.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Hope, D. A., Rapee, R. M., Heimberg, R. G., & Dombeck, M. J. (1990). Representations of the self in social phobia: Vulnerability to social threat. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 14, 177–189. doi: 10.1007/BF01176208.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Hudson, J. L., & Rapee, R. M. (2001). Parent-child interactions and anxiety disorders: An observational study. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 39, 1411–1427. doi: 10.1016/S0005-7967(00)00107-8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Hudson, J. L., & Rapee, R. M. (2002). Parent-child interactions in clinically anxious children and their siblings. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 31, 548–555. doi: 10.1207/153744202320802214.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Keaten, J. A., Kelly, L., & Finch, C. (2000). Effectiveness of the Penn State program in changing beliefs associated with reticence. Communication Education, 49, 134–145. doi: 10.1080/03634520009379201.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Kristensen, H., & Oerbeck, B. (2006). Is selective mutism associated with deficits in memory span and visual memory? An exploratory case–control study. Depression and Anxiety, 23, 71–76. doi: 10.1002/da.20140.
  49. Landis, J. R., & Koch, G. G. (1977). The measurement of observer agreement for categorical data. Biometrics, 33, 89–94.Google Scholar
  50. Levin, I. P., & Hart, S. (2003). Risk preferences in young children: Early evidence of individual differences in reaction to potential gains and losses. Journal of Behavioural Decision Making, 16, 397–413. doi: 10.1002/bdm.453.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Lovett, M. W., Barron, R. W., Forbes, J., Cukst, B., & Steinbach, K. (1994). Computer speech-based training of literacy skills in neurologically impaired children: A controlled evaluation. Brain and Language, 47, 117–154. doi: 10.1006/brln.1994.1045.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. MacWhinney, B. (2000). The CHILDES project: Tools for analyzing talk. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  53. Magnusson, D., & Hakan, S. (1998). Person-context interaction theories. In W. Damon & R. Lerner (Eds.), Handbook of child psychology: Volume 1: Theoretical models of human development (5th ed., pp. 685–759). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.Google Scholar
  54. Mansell, J., Evans, M. A., & Hamilton-Hulak, L. (2005). Developmental changes in parents’ use of miscue feedback during shared book reading. Reading Research Quarterly, 40, 294–317. doi: 10.1598/RRQ.40.3.1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Marshall, P. J., & Stevenson-Hinde, J. (2001). Behavioral inhibition; Physiological correlates. In W. R. Crozier & L. E. Alden (Eds.), International handbook of social anxiety: Concepts, research, and interventions relating to the self and shyness (pp. 53–78). New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  56. McBryde, C., Ziviani, J., & Cuskelly, M. (2004). School readiness and factors that influence decision making. Occupational Therapy International, 11, 193–208.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. McCroskey, J. C., & Daly, J. A. (1976). Teacher expectations of the communication apprehensive child in the elementary school. Human Communication Research, 3, 67–72. doi: 10.1111/j.1468-2958.1976.tb00505.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. McGee, K. M., Kim, H., Nelson, K. S., & Fired, M. D. (2015). Change over time in first graders’ strategic use of information at point of difficulty in reading. Reading Research Quarterly, 50, 263–291. doi: 10.1002/rrq.98.Google Scholar
  59. Meyer, L. A. (1982). The relative effects of word-analysis and word-supply correction procedures with poor readings during word-attack training. Reading Research Quarterly, 17, 544–555. doi: 10.2307/747570.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Minarik, E. H. (1968). A kiss for little bear. New York: Harper Trophy.Google Scholar
  61. Moore, P. S., Whaley, S. E., & Sigman, M. (2004). Interactions between mothers and children: Impacts of maternal and child anxiety. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 113, 471–476. doi: 10.1037/0021-843X.113.3.471.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Neuman, S. B. (1996). Children engaging in storybook reading: The influence of access to print resources, opportunity, and parental interaction. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 11, 495–513. doi: 10.1016/S0885-2006(96)90019-8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Normandeau, S., & Guay, F. (1998). Preschool behavior and first-grade school achievement: The mediational role of cognitive self-control. Journal of Educational Psychology, 90, 111–121.Google Scholar
  64. Perkins, V. L. (1988). Feedback effects on oral reading errors of children with learning disabilities. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 21, 244–248. doi: 10.1177/002221948802100412.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Rapee, R. M. (2001). The development of generalized anxiety. In M. W. Vasey & M. R. Dadds (Eds.), The developmental psychopathology of anxiety (pp. 481–503). New York: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Rapee, R. M., & Spence, S. H. (2004). The etiology of social phobia: Empirical evidence and an initial model. Clinical Psychology Review, 24, 737–767. doi: 10.1016/j.cpr.2004.06.004.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Reiben, L., & Perfetti, C. A. (2010). Learning to read: Basic research and its implications. Mahway, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.Google Scholar
  68. Reynolds, K. P., & Evans, M. A. (2009). Narrative performance and parental scaffolding of shy and nonshy children. Journal of Applied Psycholinguistics, 30, 363–384. doi: 10.1017/S0142716409090158.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Rowe, D. C., & Plomin, R. (1977). Temperament in early childhood. Journal of Personality Assessment, 41, 150–156. doi: 10.1207/s15327752jpa4102_5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Rubin, K. H., & Burgess, K. B. (2002). Parents of aggressive and withdrawn children. In M. H. Bornstein (Ed.), Handbook of parenting (Vol. 3, pp. 393–418). Mahwah, N.J: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  71. Sameroff, A. J. (1993). Models of development and risk. In C. H. Zeanah Jr. (Ed.), Handbook of infant mental health (pp. 3–13). New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  72. Share, D. L. (1995). Phonological recoding and self-teaching: Sine qua non of reading acquisition. Cognition, 55, 151–218. doi: 10.1016/0010-0277(94)00645-2.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Siqueland, L., Kendall, P. C., & Steinberg, L. (1996). Anxiety in children: Perceived family environments and family interaction. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 25, 225–237. doi: 10.1207/s15374424jccp2502_12.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Smolkin, L. B., Yaden, D. B., Jr., Brown, L., & Hoffman, B. (1992). The effect of genre, visual design choices, and discourse structure on preschoolers’ responses to picture books during parent-child read-alouds. National Reading Conference Yearbook, 41, 291–301.Google Scholar
  75. Spaai, G. W. G., Ellermann, H. H., & Reitsma, P. (1991). Effects of segmented and whole-word sound feedback on learning to read single words. Journal of Educational Research, 84, 204–213. Retrieved from http://www.heldref.org/pubs/jer/about.html
  76. Speece, D. L., Ritchey, K. D., Cooper, D. H., Roth, F. P., & Schatschneider, C. (2004). Growth in early reading skills from kindergarten to third grade. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 29, 312–332. doi: 10.1016/j.cedpsych.2003.07.001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Spere, K. A., Schmidt, L. A., Theall-Honey, L. A., & Martin-Chang, S. (2004). Expressive and receptive language skills of temperamentally shy preschoolers. Infant and Child Development, 13, 123–133. doi: 10.1002/icd.345.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Statistics Canada. (2013). 2011 National Household Survey: Composition in Canada. Ottawa, Canada. ISBN: 978-1-100-22544-9. Retrieved from www12statcan.gc.ca/nhs-enm/2011/as-sa/99-014-x/99-014-x2011001-eng.cfm
  79. Steinhausen, H. C., & Juzi, C. (1996). Elective mutism: An analysis of 100 cases. American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 35, 606–614. doi: 10.1097/00004583-199605000-00015.
  80. Stoltz, B. M., & Fischel, J. E. (2003). Evidence for different parent-child strategies while reading. Journal of Research in Reading, 26, 287–294. doi: 10.1111/1467-9817.00204.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Ting, K.-T. (2008). Shyness, language and children: Can shyness predict children’s primary and secondary language ability? Honor’s BA Thesis, Chinese University of Hong Kong.Google Scholar
  82. Top, B. L., & Osguthorpe, R. T. (1987). Reverse-role tutoring: The effects of handicapped students tutoring regular class students. The Elementary School Journal, 87, 413–423. doi: 10.1086/461505.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Tracey, D. H., & Young, J. W. (2002). Mothers’ helping behaviors during children’s at-home oral-reading practice: Effect of children’s reading ability, children’s gender, and mothers’ educational level. Journal of Educational Psychology, 94, 729–737. doi: 10.1037/0022-0663.94.4.729.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. van Daal, V., & Reitsma, P. (1990). Effects of independent word practice with segmented and whole-word sound feedback in disabled readers. Journal of Research in Reading, 13, 133–148. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-9817.1990.tb00330.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Wagner, R. K., Torgesen, J. K., & Rashotte, C. A. (1994). Development of reading related phonological processing abilities: New evidence of bidirectional causality from a latent variable longitudinal study. Developmental Psychology, 30, 73–87. doi: 10.1037/0012-1849.30.1.73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Whitehurst, G. J., & Lonigan, C. J. (1998). Child development and emergent literacy. Child Development, 69, 848–872. doi: 10.2307/1132208.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Wood, H., & Wood, D. (1983). Questioning the preschool child. Educational Review, 35, 149–162. doi: 10.1080/0013191830350206.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Wood, J. J., McLeod, B. D., Sigman, M., Hwang, W., & Chu, B. C. (2003). Parenting and childhood anxiety: Theory, empirical findings, and future directions. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 44, 134–151. doi: 10.1111/1469-7610.00106.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Woodcock, R. (1998). Woodcock reading mastery test. Circle Pines, MN: American Guidance Service.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Singapore 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of PsychologyUniversity of GuelphGuelphCanada

Personalised recommendations