Toward a New Affirmative Action in a More Diversified Society

  • Masaki Kawashima


This chapter deals with present-day U.S. society since Barack Obama became president, reflecting the rising tide of a new “multi-race” generation. I analyze Obama’s speeches and his emphasis on “self-help” for Black males. I then focus on the latest demographics in U.S. cities, in which the reurbanization of highly educated young professionals, or the “urban gentry,” is a notable phenomenon. The suburbanization of nonwhites is also becoming noticeable. In the meantime, the older Baby Boomers, mostly whites, are becoming more and more anxious, resulting in polarization along color and generational lines. The last section returns to the inner-city “underclass” and features effective trials by various NPOs, especially in the field of education.


Barack Obama Empowerment Affirmative opportunity Algebra project KIPP DSNI 


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  3. Sharkey, Patrick. 2013. Stuck in place: Urban neighborhoods and the end of progress toward racial equality. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Masaki Kawashima
    • 1
  1. 1.Nanzan UniversityNagoyaJapan

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