Enhanced Kinetic Energy Entrainment in Wind Farm Wakes: Large Eddy Simulation Study of a Wind Turbine Array with Kites

  • Evangelos Ploumakis
  • Wim Bierbooms
Part of the Green Energy and Technology book series (GREEN)


Wake effects in wind farms are a major source of power production losses and fatigue loads on the rotors. It has been demonstrated that in large wind farms the only source of kinetic energy to balance the energy extracted by the turbines is the vertical transport of the free-stream flow kinetic energy from above the wind turbine canopy. This chapter explores the possibility to enhance this transport process by introducing kites in steady flight within a small wind turbine array. In a first step, an array of four wind turbines, aligned with the streamwise velocity component, is simulated within a large eddy simulation framework. The turbines are placed in a pre-generated turbulent atmospheric boundary layer and modeled as actuator disks with both axial and tangential inductions, to account for the wake rotation. In a second step an identical turbine configuration with interspersed kites is investigated. The kites are modeled as body forces on the flow, equal in magnitude and opposite in direction to the vector sum of the lift and drag forces acting on the kite surfaces. A qualitative comparison of the mean flow statistics, before and after the introduction of the kites is presented.


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The authors would like to thank the anonymous reviewers for their helpful comments and gratefully acknowledge the contribution of Dhruv Mehta and Lorenzo Lignarolo for their expert advice on the wide range of topics treated in the present work.


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© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Faculty of Aerospace EngineeringDelft University of TechnologyDelftThe Netherlands

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