Advertisement

Makin’ Cake—Provocation, Self-confrontation, and the Opacity of Play

  • Daniel Cermak-Sassenrath
Chapter
Part of the Gaming Media and Social Effects book series (GMSE)

Abstract

Players can do the most extraordinary things in games without raising an eyebrow. Here, three specific questions are discussed: What do objects and actions in games mean? How are these meanings constructed? By and for whom? It is argued that players most naturally understand and know perfectly well what their actions in games mean and how they relate to everyday life: Actions in play are blank, and mean nothing. Meaning is only created within play, in a fluid, dynamic, and collaborative process, over time, based on an implicit understanding and shared practice. Meaning is not seen as abstract truth and values, for all times and across all cultures, but relative: something gains meaning for somebody, in a particular situation and context. The interactive installation Makin’ Cake demonstrates the issue of the meaning of play activities within and without play by providing an immediate and provocative experience to players and spectators.

References

  1. Aarseth, E. J. (2007). Semiotics vs. mechanics, or fiction/simulation/reality? In Two game-ontological models. Lecture, Informatik-Kolloquium, Univ. Bremen, Dec 5, 2007. My notes.Google Scholar
  2. Adams, E. W. (1999). Three problems for interactive storytellers. Gamasutra, Dec 29, 1999. Retrieved Jun 4, 2004, from www.gamasutra.com/features/designers_notebook/19991229.htm.
  3. Anonymous. (1954). Fruit pavlova wins £1/1/. The Courier-Mail, Brisbane, p. 11, Oct 13, 1954. Retrieved May 2, 2013, from http://trove.nla.gov.au/ndp/del/article/50624617.
  4. Anonymous. (2009). Storm over call of duty game that allows players to massacre civilians. Mail Online, 11 Nov 2009. Retrieved May 2, 2013, from www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-1226588/Call-Duty-Political-storm-brutal-video-game-allows-killing-civilians-airport-massacre.html.
  5. Apter, M. J. (1991). A structural-phenomenology of play. In J. H. Kerr & M. J. Apter (Eds.), Adult play: A reversal theory approach. Amsterdam: Swets and Zeitlinger.Google Scholar
  6. Arnheim, R. (n.d.). Film as art (18th edn). Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  7. Bagiñski, T. (2005). On his animated movie Fallen Art. Ars Electronica 2005, September 2005. My notes.Google Scholar
  8. Barthes, R. (1977). From work to text. In Image-music-text. New York: Hill and Wang. English translation Stephen Heath.Google Scholar
  9. Bennett, T., & Woollacott, J. (1987). Bond and beyond: The political career of a popular hero. London: Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bishop, C. (2004). Antagonism and relational aesthetics. October, 110(60), 51–79. Retrieved Apr 8, 2011, from www.jstor.org/stable/3397557.
  11. Biskind, P. (1999). Easy riders, raging bulls. How the sex ‘n’ drugs ‘n’ rock ‘n’ roll generation saved hollywood (10th ed.). London: Bloomsbury, paperback.Google Scholar
  12. Bisky, L., & Wiedemann, D. (1985). Der Spielfilm: Rezeption und Wirkung. Berlin: Henschel.Google Scholar
  13. Bolter, J. D., & Gromala, D. (2003) Windows and mirrors: Interaction design, digital art, and the myth of transparency. Cambridge: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  14. Bolter, J. D., & Grusin, R. (1999). Remediation: Understanding new media. Boston: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  15. Bradley, F. H. (1906, October). On floating ideas and the imaginary. Mind, XV(60), 445–72.Google Scholar
  16. Brey, P. (1998). The politics of computer systems and the ethics of design. In J. van den Hoven (Ed.), Computer ethics: Philosophical enquiry (pp. 64–75). Preprint version: Rotterdam University Press.Google Scholar
  17. Buchhart, D. (2005 Jun–Aug). Über die Dialektik von Spielregeln und offenem Handlungsfeld. Kunstforum International, 176, 38–55.Google Scholar
  18. Buytendijk, F. J. J. (1933). Wesen und Sinn des Spiels: Das Spielen des Menschen und der Tiere als Erscheinungsform der Lebenstriebe. Berlin: Kurt Wolff.Google Scholar
  19. Carroll, L. (1993). Alice’s adventures in wonderland and through the looking-glass. Ware.Google Scholar
  20. Cermak-Sassenrath, D. (2013). Makin’ cake and the meaning in games. In L.-L. Chen, T. Djajadiningrat, L. Feijs, S. Fraser, J. Hu, S. Kyffin & D. Steffen (Eds.), Design and semantics of form and movement (DeSForM) (pp. 199–203).Google Scholar
  21. Civilization III. (2007). Retrieved January 18, 2007, from www.civ3.com/de/news.cfm.
  22. Cohn, M. (1991). Miles away. LP Marc Cohn, lyrics from www.asklyrics.com/display/marc-cohn/miles-away-lyrics.htm (Feb 13, 2014), Written by Paul Taylor.
  23. Consalvo, M. (2005). Rule sets, cheating, and magic circles: Studying games and ethics. International Review of Information Ethics (IRIE), 4, 7–12.Google Scholar
  24. Crash Net. (2013). Post-qualifying press conference at Estoril, May 1, 2011. Retrieved May 1, 2013, from www.crash.net/motogp/news/168821/1/verbal_clash_between_lorenzo_and_simoncelli.html.
  25. Crogan, P. (2011). Gameplay mode: War, simulation, and technoculture. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. D1scR3adErr0r. (2013). Does swearing make a better game? 4Player Network, Apr 28, 2013. Retrieved May 14, 2013, from http://4playernetwork.com/cblogs/D1scR3adErr0r/2013/04/does-swearing-make-a-better-game.
  27. Denzin, N. K. (1989). Interpretive Interactionism. London/Newbury Park/New Delhi: Sage.Google Scholar
  28. Douglas, J. Y., & Hargadon, A. (2001). The pleasures of immersion and engagement: Schemas, scripts and the fifth business. Digital Creativity, 12(3), 153–66.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Dourish, P. (2001). Where the action is: The foundations of embodied interaction. Cambridge: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  30. Draper, S. W., & Norman, D. A. (1986). Introduction. In D. A. Norman & S. W. Draper (Eds.), User centered system design: New perpectives on human-computer interaction (pp. 1–5). Hillsdale: Lawrence Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  31. Dunne, A., & Raby, F. (2001). Design noir: The secret life of electronic objects. Basel/Boston/Berlin: Birkhäuser.Google Scholar
  32. Dunningham, J. F. (2000). Wargames handbook: How to play and design commercial and professional wargames (3rd ed.). San Jose: Writers Club Press.Google Scholar
  33. Ebert, H. (1997). Zu den Bildern von Eva Koethen. In E. Koethen (Ed.), Bild-Räume 1993–1996 (pp. 8–12). Berlin: Brains.Google Scholar
  34. Ekins, C. (2009). The 1940’s experiment—weight loss blog—losing 100 lb on wartime rations. Blog, Oct 14, 2009. Retrieved May 2, 2013, from https://1940sexperiment.wordpress.com.
  35. Fink, E. (1957). Oase des Glücks. Gedanken zu einer Ontologie des Spiels. Freiburg: Karl Alber.Google Scholar
  36. Fiske, J. (1988). Critical response: Meaningful moments. Critical Studies in Mass Communication, 5(3), 246–51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Fitzgerald, F. S. (2000). The Great Gatsby [1926]. London: Penguin.Google Scholar
  38. Frasca, G. (2003). Ludologists love stories, too: Notes from a debate that never took place. In Digital Games Research Conference 2003 Proceedings (www.gamesconference.org) and DiGRA Digital Library (www.digra.org).
  39. Freud, S. (1982). Studienausgabe (Vol. 10). Frankfurt: Fischer.Google Scholar
  40. Friedman, K. (2013). Keynote speech. Creativity and Cognition 2013, Jun 18, 2013. My notes.Google Scholar
  41. Fritz, J. (1999). Herrscher in virtuellen Welten—die Ausübung von Macht. Spektrum der Wissenschaft, Dossier Software (pp. 91–4).Google Scholar
  42. Fröbel, F. (1937). Theorie des Spiels (Vol. I). Langensalza: Julius Beltz. Introduction Erika Hoffmann.Google Scholar
  43. Gallwey, W. T. (1974). The inner game of tennis. New York: Random House.Google Scholar
  44. Gebauer, G. (2012). Deutschlandfunk, Informationen am Mittag, Jul 25, 2012. My notes.Google Scholar
  45. Gibson, W. (2008). Spook Country. London: Penguin.Google Scholar
  46. Gibson, W. (2011). Zero History. London: Penguin.Google Scholar
  47. Glassner, A. (2001). Interactive storytelling: People, stories, and games. In O. Balet, G. Subsol & P. Torguet (Eds.), Virtual Storytelling Using Virtual Reality Technologies for Storytelling: Proceedings International Conference ICVS 2001, Avignon, France, 27–28 Sep 2001 (Vol. 2197, pp. 51–60)., Lecture Notes in Computer Science Berlin: Springer.Google Scholar
  48. Grau, O. (2003). Virtual art: From illusion to immersion. Cambridge: MIT Press, English translation Gloria Custance.Google Scholar
  49. Guns n’ Roses (1988). Used to love her. LP G N’ R Lies.Google Scholar
  50. Hall, S. (1980). Encoding/decoding. In S. Hall, D. Hobson, A. Love & P. Willis (Eds.), Culture, media, language: Working papers in cultural studies, 1972-79 (pp. 128–38). London: Hutchinson.Google Scholar
  51. Hall, S. (1993). Encoding, decoding. In S. During (Ed.), The Cultural Studies Reader (pp. 90–103). London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  52. Heidegger, M. (2001). The origin of the work of art. (1936). Poetry, language, thought (pp. 15–88). New York: Harper and Row. English translation Albert Hofstadter.Google Scholar
  53. Huizinga, J. (1955). Homo Ludens: A study of the play-element in culture. Boston: Beacon Press.Google Scholar
  54. Huizinga, J. (1956). Homo Ludens. Vom Ursprung der Kultur im Spiel. Reinbek bei Hamburg: Rowohlt. German translation Hans Nachrod.Google Scholar
  55. Huhtamo, E. (2005). Zurücksprechen. Kunstforum. International, 178, 63–9.Google Scholar
  56. Hutchins, E. L., Hollan, J. D., & Norman, D. A. (1986). Direct manipulation interfaces. In D. A. Norman & S. W. Draper (Eds.), User centered system design, new perpectives on human-computer interaction (pp. 87–124). Hillsdale: Lawrence Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  57. Irrational Games Forums. (2013). The baptism controversy. http://forums.2kgames.com/showthread.php?234121-The-baptism-controversy.
  58. Jordan, J. (2005). Verführung. Kunstforum. International, 178, 101–5.Google Scholar
  59. Juul, J. (2005). Half-real: Video games between real rules and fictional worlds. Cambridge: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  60. Kay, A. (1995). Powerful ideas need love too! Written remarks to Joint Hearing on Educational Technology in the 21st Century, Science Committee and the Economic and Educational Opportunities Committee, US House of Representatives, Washington D.C., Oct 12, 1995. Retrieved September 10, 2004, from http://minnow.cc.gatech.edu/learn/12.
  61. Klimpke, K., & Behlau, D. (2013). Show me your garage. Custombike, 3, 64–9.Google Scholar
  62. Keller, P. E. (1998). Arbeiten und Spielen am Arbeitsplatz: Eine Untersuchung am Beispiel von Software-Entwicklung. Frankfurt a. M.: Campus, 1998. Also: Bremen, Univ., Diss., 1997.Google Scholar
  63. Klevjer, R. (2002). In defense of cutscenes. In F. Mäyrä (Ed.), CGDC conference proceedings. Tampere: Tampere University Press.Google Scholar
  64. Krämer, S. (1995). Spielerische Interaktion. Überlegungen zu unserem Umgang mit Instrumenten. In F. Rötzer (Ed.), Schöne neue Welten? Auf dem Weg zu einer neuen Spielkultur (pp. 225–237). Munich: Boer.Google Scholar
  65. Kücklich, J. R. (2004). Play and playability as key concepts in new media studies. STeM Centre, Dublin City University. Retrieved April 19, 2006, from www.playability.de/Play.pdf.
  66. Kunstraum der Leuphana Universität Lüneburg. Email, invitation to the screening of Hartmut Bitomsky’s Reichsautobahn, (FRG 1985) on Jul 6, 2012, Jun 28, 2012.Google Scholar
  67. Lamnek, S. (1989). Qualitative Sozialforschung (Vol. 1) (Methodologie). Munich: Psychologie Verlags Union.Google Scholar
  68. Lash, S. (1990). Sociology of Postmodernism. London/New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  69. Laura, V. (2013) Why unnecessary swearing in video games annoys me. Leviathyn. The Gamer’s Chronicle, Apr 8, 2013. Retrieved May 14, 2013, from http://www.leviathyn.com/games/opinion/2013/04/08/why-unnecessary-swearing-in-video-games-annoys-me.
  70. Laurel, B. K. (1986). Interface as mimesis. In D. A. Norman & S. W. Draper (Eds.), User centered system design: New perpectives on human-computer interaction (pp. 67–85). Hillsdale: Lawrence Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  71. Laurel, B. K. (1993). Computers as theatre. Reading: Addison-Wesley.Google Scholar
  72. Lewis, M., & Staehler, T. (2010). Phenomenology. An Introduction. London: Continuum.Google Scholar
  73. Mann, T. (2000). Bekenntnisse des Hochstaplers Felix Krull. Der Memoiren erster Teil (43rd Ed.). Frankfurt a. M.: Fischer.Google Scholar
  74. Manovich, L. (2000). The Language of New Media. Retrieved Augest 9, 2002, from www.manovich.net/LNM/Manovich.pdf.
  75. Marks, H. (2007). Señor nice: Straight life from wales to South America. London: Vintage Books.Google Scholar
  76. Maturana, H. R. (1970). The neurophysiology of cognition. In P. L. Garvin (Ed.), Cognition: A multiple view (pp. 3–24). New York: Spartan.Google Scholar
  77. Maturana, H. R., & Varela, F. J. (1980). Autopoiesis and cognition: The realization of the living. Dordrecht: Reidel.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. McLuhan, M. (2002). Understanding media: The extensions of man. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  79. McNeilly, J. (2008). 10 most swearing-est games. GamesRadar, Apr 3, 2008. Retrieved May 14, 2013, from www.gamesradar.com/10-most-swearing-est-games.
  80. Morton, S. B. (2005). Enhancing the impact of music in drama-oriented games. Gamasutra, Jan 24, 2005. Retrieved January 27, 2006, from www.gamasutra.com/features/20050124/morton_01.shtml.
  81. Mount, P. (2002). Gameplay: The elements of interaction. Gamasutra, Apr 3, 2002. Retrieved April 25, 2003, from www.gamasutra.com/education/theses/20020403/mount_01.htm.
  82. Murray, J. H. (1997). Hamlet on the Holodeck: The future of narrative in cyberspace. Cambridge: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  83. Myers, D. (1999). Simulation as play: A semiotic analysis. Simulation and Gaming, 30(2), 147–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Myers, D. M. (2010). Play redux: The form of computer games. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Newman, J. (2002). In search of the videogame player. The lives of Mario. New Media and Society, 4(3), 2002.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Norman, D. A., Draper, S. W., & Bannon, L. J. (1986). Glossary. In D. A. Norman & S. W. Draper (Eds.), User centered system design: New perpectives on human-computer interaction (pp. 487–497). Hillsdale: Lawrence Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  87. Paragons. (1967). The tide is high. Written by John Holt.Google Scholar
  88. PenVampyre@aol.com. (2011). Homemade vintage cake recipes, Dec 24, 2011. Retrieved October 23, 2012, from www.twisted-candy.com/1950s-cake-recipes.html.
  89. Pias, C. (2000). Computer Spiel Welten. Munich: Sequenzia, 2002. Also: Weimar, Univ., Diss., 2000. Retrieved October 28, 2004, from ftp://ftp.uni-weimar.de/pub/publications/diss/Pias/pias.pdf.
  90. Pias, C. (2013). On simulation. Talk, ITU, Copenhagen, Dec 13, 2013. My notes.Google Scholar
  91. Poague, L. A., & Parsons, K. A. (Eds.). (2000). Susan Sontag: An annotated bibliography 1948–1992. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  92. Polygon. Valve refunds gamer uncomfortable with forced baptism in BioShock Infinite. Retrieved April 16, 2013, from www.polygon.com/2013/4/16/4231064/valve-refunds-baptism-bioshock-infinite.
  93. Raessens, J. (2009). Serious games from an apparatus perspective. In M. van den Boomen, S. Lammes, A.-S. Lehmann, J. Raessens & M. T. Schäfer (Eds.), Digital material-Tracing new media in everyday life and technology (pp. 21–34). Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press.Google Scholar
  94. Retter, H. (2003). Einführung in die Pädagogik des Spiels. Braunschweig: Institut für Allgemeine Pädagogik und Technische Bildung der Technischen Universität Braunschweig, Abteilung Historisch-Systematische Pädagogik, 1998, new ed. 2003.Google Scholar
  95. Robben, B., & Cermak-Sassenrath, D. (2006/7). Theorie digitaler Medien. Course, WS2006/7, Medieninformatik, Hochsch, Bremen. My notes.Google Scholar
  96. Robinett, W. (n.d.). Inventing the adventure game. Unpublished.Google Scholar
  97. Rodman, D., & Keown, T. (1996). Bad as I wanna be. New York: Delacorte Press.Google Scholar
  98. Röhrbein, K., & Hanke, M. (2006). Die wollen nur spielen. Waldeckische Landeszeitung, Aug 5, 2006.Google Scholar
  99. Rötzer, F. (2005 Jun–Aug). Die Begegnung von Computerspiel und Wirklichkeit. Kunstforum International, 176, 102–15.Google Scholar
  100. Salen, K., & Zimmerman, E. (2004). Rules of play: Game design fundamentals. Cambridge: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  101. Scheuerl, H. (1965). Das Spiel. Untersuchungen über sein Wesen, seine pädagogischen Möglichkeiten und Grenzen (4th/5th ed.). Weinheim: Julius Beltz.Google Scholar
  102. Schröck, P. (2005). Wir spielen immer. Kunstforum. International, 178, 48–57.Google Scholar
  103. Seeßlen, G., & Rost, C. (1984). Pac-Man & Co. Die Welt der Computerspiele. Reinbek bei Hamburg: Rowohlt.Google Scholar
  104. Silverstone, R. (1999). ‘Play’: Why Study the Media?. London: Sage.Google Scholar
  105. Slash, & Bozza, A. (2008). Slash (6th ed.). London: Harper Collins.Google Scholar
  106. Sommerseth, H. (2007). ‘Gamic realism’: Player, perception and action in video game play. In Situated Play, Proceedings of DiGRA 2007 Conference (pp. 765–768).Google Scholar
  107. Sontag, S. (1996). Storytelling metaphors for human-computer interaction in Mixed Reality. New York Times, Feb 25, 1996. Retrieved January 15, 2014, from www.nytimes.com/books/00/03/12/specials/sontag-cinema.html.
  108. Suchman, L. A. (1987). Plans and situated actions: The problem of human-machine communication. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  109. Thompson, J. B. (1990). Ideology and modern culture: Critical social theory in the era of mass communication. Cambridge: Polity Press.Google Scholar
  110. Volta, G. (2013). Bioshock Infinite’s forced baptism has sparked controversy and discussion. www.forums.ghostvolta.com/discussion/231/bioshock-infinites-forced-baptism-has-sparked-controversy-and-discussion/p1.
  111. von Brauchitsch, M. (1943). Kampf mit 500 PS (4th ed.). Berlin: Karl Siegismund.Google Scholar
  112. Walther, B. K. (2002, May). Playing and gaming: Reflections and classifications. Game Studies: The International Journal of Computer Game Research, 3(1). Retrieved May 13, 2004, from www.gamestudies.org/0301/walther.
  113. Williams, B. (1988). Upscaling downtown: Stalled gentrification in Washington D. C. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.Google Scholar
  114. Willke, H. (1987). Systemtheorie (2nd ed.). Stuttgart: Fischer.Google Scholar
  115. Wilson, S. (2003). The aesthetics and practice of designing interactive computer events. Published in a different form in ACM SIGGRAPH 93 Visual Proceedings Art Show Catalog, 1993. Retrieved June 30, 2003, from http://userwww.sfsu.edu/swilson/papers/interactive2.html.
  116. Winograd, T., & Flores, F. (1986). Understanding computers and cognition. Boston: Addison-Wesley.Google Scholar
  117. Winter, R. (1995). Der produktive Zuschauer. Quintessenz, MMV Medizin: Medienaneignung als kultureller und ästhetischer Prozeß. Munich.Google Scholar
  118. WoWWiki. (2013). The culling. Retrieved August 8, 2003, from www.wowwiki.com/The_Culling.
  119. WuShogun212. (2013). Baptism controversy in Bioshock Infinite—man gets full refund. Retrieved August 8, 2013, from www.youtube.com/watch?v=Aa6nssPmQoE, My transcr., Apr 17, 2013.
  120. Žižek, S. (1999). Is it possible to traverse the fantasy in cyberspace? In E. Wright & E. Wright (Eds.), The Žižek Reader (pp. 102–24). Malden: Blackwell Publishing.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Center for Computer Games Research, IT University of CopenhagenCopenhagenDenmark

Personalised recommendations