Dwarfs of Cryptography

  • Ayesha KhalidEmail author
  • Goutam Paul
  • Anupam Chattopadhyay
Part of the Computer Architecture and Design Methodologies book series (CADM)


Here the aim is to develop better performance optimized hardware implementations for the domain of cryptography. Towards this goal, the current chapter first focuses on the necessity of classifying and identifying a range of operations that are representative of a whole range of algorithms for a specific application domain, namely, cryptography.


  1. 1.
    Asanovic K, Bodik R, Catanzaro BC, Gebis JJ, Husbands P, Keutzer K, Patterson DA, Plishker WL, Shalf J, Williams SW et al (2006) The landscape of parallel computing research: a view from berkeley, Technical report UCB/EECS-2006-183, EECS Department. University of California. Technical Report, BerkeleyGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Dubey P, Engineer S (2006) Teraflops for the masses: killer apps of tomorrow. In: Workshop on edge computing using new commodity architectures, UNC, vol 23Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Menezes AJ, Van Oorschot PC, Vanstone SA (1996) Handbook of applied cryptography. CRC Press, USACrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    U. D. o. C. National Bureau of Standards, “Data Encryption Standard (DES)” (1977).
  5. 5.
    NIST “Advanced Encryption Standard (AES),” National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) (2001)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Paar C, Pelzl J (2009) Understanding cryptography. Springer Publishing Company, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Khovratovich D, Nikolić I (2010) Rotational cryptanalysis of ARX. Fast software encryption (FSE). Springer, Berlin, pp 333–346Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Aumasson J-P, Henzen L, Meier W, Phan RC-W (2008) SHA-3 Proposal BLAKE. Submission to NISTGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Ferguson N, Lucks S, Schneier B, Whiting D, Bellare M, Kohno T, Callas J, Walker J (2010) The Skein Hash Function Family, Version 1.3, p 3Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    SHA-3 “SHA-3 Cryptographic Secure Hash Algorithm Competition” (2007).
  11. 11.
    Bertoni G, Daemen J, Peeters M, Van Assche G (2009) Keccak Sponge Function Family, vol 3, p 30. Submission to NIST (Round 2)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Rivest RL, Schuldt JC (2014) Spritz-A spongy RC4-like stream cipher and hash function. CRYPTO 2014 rump session.
  13. 13.
    Dworkin M (2001) Recommendation for Block Cipher Modes of Operation. Methods and Techniques. Technical Report, DTIC DocumentGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    ISO/IEC “Authenticated Encryption-Security Techniques,” ISO/IEC 19772:2009 (2013).
  15. 15.
    Weinmann R (2009) AXR-Crypto Made from Modular Additions, XORs and Word Rotations. In: Dagstuhl seminar, vol 9031Google Scholar
  16. 16.
  17. 17.
    Wu H (2008) The stream cipher HC-128. In: New stream cipher designs. Springer, Berlin, pp 39–47Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Rivest R (1992) “The MD5 message digest algorithm.” In: RFC 1321 by MIT laboratory for computer science and RSA data securityGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    NIST G (2012) “Secure Hash Standard (SHS).”
  20. 20.
    ECRYPT eSTREAM: The european network of excellence in cryptology (ECRYPT) Stream Cipher Project (2012).
  21. 21.
    Fujii M, Torigai M (2000) Data transfer method, communication system and storage medium. In: US Patent US6038321 AGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Daemen J, Govaerts R, Vandewalle J (1994) A new approach to block cipher design. In: Fast software encryption (FSE). Springer, Berlin, pp 18–32Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Daemen J (1995) Cipher and hash function design strategies based on linear and differential cryptanalysis, Ph.D. dissertation, KU Leuven, March 1995Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Rijmen V, Daemen J, Preneel B, Bosselaers A, De Win E (1996) The Cipher SHARK. In: Fast software encryption (FSE). Springer, Berlin, pp 99–111Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Daemen J, Knudsen L, Rijmen V (1997) The block cipher square. In: Fast software encryption (FSE). Springer, Berlin, pp 149–165Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Daemen J, Rijmen V (2013) The design of rijndael: AES - The advanced encryption standard. Springer Science & Business Media, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Biham E, Anderson R, Knudsen L (1998) Serpent: a new block cipher proposal. In: Fast software encryption. Springer, Berlin, pp 222–238Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Lim CH (1998) CRYPTON: A New 128-bit Block Cipher. In: NIST AES ProposalGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Rijmen V, Barreto PSLM (2000) The ANUBIS block cipher. In: New european schemes for signatures, integrity and encryption (NESSIE)Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Ohkuma K, Muratani H, Sano F, Kawamura S (2001) “The block cipher hierocrypt.” In: Selected areas in cryptography (SAC). Springer, Berlin, pp 72–88Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Barreto P, Rijmen V (2000) “The Khazad legacy-level block cipher.” Primitive submitted to NESSIE, vol 97Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Daemen J, Peeters M, Van Assche G, Rijmen V (2000) “NESSIE proposal: NOEKEON.” In: First open NESSIE workshop, pp 213–230Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Standaert F-X, Piret G, Rouvroy G, Quisquater J-J, Legat J-D (2004) “ICEBERG: an involutional cipher efficient for block encryption in reconfigurable hardware.” In: Fast software encryption. Springer, Berlin, pp 279–298Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Nakahara Jr J, Rijmen V, Preneel B, Vandewalle J (2004) “The MESH block ciphers.” In: Information security applications. Springer, Berlin, pp 458–473Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Kwon D, Kim J, Park S, Sung SH, Sohn Y, Song JH, Yeom Y, Yoon E-J, Lee S, Lee J et al (2003) “New block cipher: ARIA.” In: Information security and cryptology-ICISC. Springer, Berlin, pp 432–445Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Bogdanov A, Knudsen LR, Leander G, Paar C, Poschmann A, Robshaw MJ, Seurin Y, Vikkelsoe C (2007) PRESENT: an ultra-lightweight block cipher. Springer, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Cheng H, Heys HM, Wang C (2008) “Puffin: a novel compact block cipher targeted to embedded digital systems.” In: 11th EUROMICRO conference on digital system design architectures, methods and tools (DSD). IEEE, pp 383–390Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Engels D, Fan X, Gong G, Hu H, Smith EM (2010) “Hummingbird: ultra-lightweight cryptography for resource-constrained devices.” In: Financial cryptography and data security. Springer, Berlin, pp 3–18Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Knudsen L, Leander G, Poschmann A, Robshaw MJ (2010) “PRINTcipher: a block cipher for IC-Printing.” In: Cryptographic hardware and embedded systems (CHES). Springer, Berlin, pp 16–32Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Guo J, Peyrin T, Poschmann A, Robshaw M (2011) “The LED block cipher.” In: Cryptographic hardware and embedded systems (CHES). Springer, Berlin, pp 326–341Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Gong Z, Nikova S, Law YW (2012) KLEIN: a new family of lightweight block ciphers. Springer, Berlin, vol 7055Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Borghoff J, Canteaut A, Güneysu T, Kavun EB, Knezevic M, Knudsen LR, Leander G, Nikov V, Paar C, Rechberger C et al (2012) “PRINCE–a low-latency block cipher for pervasive computing applications.” In: Advances in cryptology–ASIACRYPT. Springer, Berlin, pp 208–225Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Jansen CJA (2004) “Streamcipher design: make your LFSR jump.” In: Proceedings of the the state of the art of stream ciphers (SASC), ser. ECRYPT network of excellence in cryptology, pp 94–108Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Babbage S, Dodd M (2006) “The stream cipher MICKEY 2.0.” In: ECRYPT stream cipher.
  45. 45.
    Babbage S, Dodd M (2008) “The MICKEY stream ciphers.” In: New stream cipher designs. Springer, Berlin, pp 191–209Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Helleseth T, Jansen CJ, Kholosha A (2006) “Pomaranch-design and analysis of a family of stream ciphers.” In: SASC 2006 stream ciphers revisited, p 13Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    3rd Generation Partnership Project, “Specification of the 3GPP Confidentiality and Integrity Algorithms UEA2 and UIA2,” Document 1: UEA2 and UIA2 Specification Version 1.1, September 2006Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    ZUC “Specification of the 3GPP Confidentiality and Integrity Algorithms 128-EEA3 and 128-EIA3.” Document 2: ZUC Specification. ETSI/SAGE Specification, Version: 1.5., January 2011Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Schneier B (1996) Applied cryptography. Wiley, New York, pp 397–398. Chap. 17Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Maitra S, Paul G (2008) “Analysis of RC4 and proposal of additional layers for better security margin.” In: Progress in cryptology-INDOCRYPT. Springer, Berlin, pp 27–39Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Zoltak B (2004) “VMPC One-way function and stream cipher.” In: Fast software encryption (FSE). Springer, Berlin, pp 210–225Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Briceno M, Goldberg I, Wagner D (1999) “A pedagogical implementation of the GSM A5/1 and A5/2 voice privacy encryption algorithms.” October 1999.
  53. 53.
    Bluetooth SIC (2001) “Specification of the bluetooth system.” Version 1.1.
  54. 54.
    Barkan E, Biham E, Keller N (2008) Instant ciphertext-only cryptanalysis of GSM encrypted communication. J Cryptol 21(3):392–429MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Lu Y, Meier W, Vaudenay S (2005) “The conditional correlation attack: a practical attack on bluetooth encryption.” In: Advances in cryptology–CRYPTO. Springer, Berlin, pp 97–117Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Hell M, Johansson T, Meier W (2007) Grain: a stream cipher for constrained environments. Int J Wirel Mob Comput 2(1):86–93CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Hell M, Johansson T, Maximov A, Meier W (2006) A stream cipher proposal: grain-128. In: IEEE international symposium on information theory (ISIT). CiteseerGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Ägren M, Hell M, Johansson T, Meier W (2011) Grain-128a: a new version of grain-128 with optional authentication. Int J Wirel Mob Comput 5(1):48–59CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    De Canniere C, Preneel B (2005) Trivium specifications. In: ECRYPT stream cipher project (eSTREAM), Report, vol 30Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Shamir A (2004) Stream ciphers: dead or alive? In: Advances in cryptology–ASIACRYPT, p 78Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Group GS (1999) General report on the design, speification and evaluation of 3GPP standard confidentiality and integrity algorithms. 3G TR 33.908 version 3.0.0 Release.
  62. 62.
    Gaj K, Homsirikamol E, Rogawski M (2010) Fair and comprehensive methodology for comparing hardware performance of fourteen round two SHA-3 Candidates using FPGAs. In: Cryptographic hardware and embedded systems (CHES). Springer, Berlin, pp 264–278Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    Meyer-Baese U (2007) Digital signal processing with field programmable gate arrays, vol 65. Springer, BerlinGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ayesha Khalid
    • 1
    Email author
  • Goutam Paul
    • 2
  • Anupam Chattopadhyay
    • 3
  1. 1.The Institute of Electronics, Communications and Information TechnologyQueen’s University BelfastBelfastIreland
  2. 2.Cryptology and Security Research Unit, R. C. Bose Centre for Cryptology and SecurityIndian Statistical InstituteKolkataIndia
  3. 3.School of Computer EngineeringNanyang Technological UniversitySingaporeSingapore

Personalised recommendations