Problem Formulation

  • Jacob BenestyEmail author
  • Jingdong Chen
  • Chao Pan
Part of the SpringerBriefs in Electrical and Computer Engineering book series (BRIEFSELECTRIC)


In this chapter, we describe the signal model, formulate the problem, and explain how differential beamforming works. We discuss the most fundamental performance measures such as the beampattern, the front-to-back ratio, the signal-to-noise ratio gain, the white noise gain, and the directivity factor. These measures are important in the evaluation of differential beamformers as well as in their derivation. We finally show how to obtain the most interesting theoretical beampatterns, of any order, associated with differential beamforming; they are the dipole, the cardioid, the hypercardioid, and the supercardioid.


Directivity Pattern Directivity Factor Ratio Gain Hankel Matrice Interelement Spacing 
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Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.INRS-EMT, University of QuebecMontrealCanada
  2. 2.Northwestern Polytechnical UniversityXi’anChina

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