Advertisement

Introduction

  • Jacob BenestyEmail author
  • Jingdong Chen
  • Chao Pan
Chapter
  • 882 Downloads
Part of the SpringerBriefs in Electrical and Computer Engineering book series (BRIEFSELECTRIC)

Abstract

In this chapter, we briefly discuss microphone array beamforming in general and differential beamforming in particular. We also explain why this latter approach is fundamental and should be considered in most speech and audio acquisition systems.

Keywords

Orthogonal Polynomial Audio Signal Directivity Factor Microphone Array Uniform Linear Array 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. 1.
    Olson HF (1932) A uni-directional ribbon microphone. J Acoust Soc Am 3(3):315–316CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Olson HF (1946) Gradient microphones. J Acoust Soc Am 17(3):192–198CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Ward DB, Williamson RC, Kennedy RA (1998) Broadband microphone arrays for speech acquisition. Acoust Australia 26:17–20Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Benesty J, Chen J, Huang Y (2008) Microphone array signal processing. Springer, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Elko GW, Meyer J (2007) Microphone arrays. In: Benesty J, Sondhi MM, Huang Y (eds) Springer handbook of speech processing, Chapter 50. Springer, Berlin, pp 1021–1041Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Flanagan J, Johnston J, Zahn R, Elko G (1985) Computer-steered microphone arrays for sound transduction in large rooms. J Acoust Soc Am 78:1508–1518CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Flanagan J, Berkley D, Elko G, West J, Sondhi MM (1991) Autodirective microphone systems. Acustica 73:58–71Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Doclo S, Moonen M (2003) Design of broadband beamformers robust against gain and phase errors in the microphone array characteristics. IEEE Trans Signal Process 51:2511–2526CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Benesty J, Chen J, Huang Y, Dmochowski J (2007) On microphone-array beamforming from a MIMO acoustic signal processing perspective. IEEE Trans Audio Speech Lang Process 15:1053–1065Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Frost OL III (1972) An algorithm for linearly constrained adaptive array processing. Proc IEEE 60:926–935CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Capon J (1969) High resolution frequency-wavenumber spectrum analysis. Proc IEEE 57:1408–1418CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Widrow B, Mantey P, Griffiths L, Goode B (1967) Adaptive antenna systems. J Acoust Soc Am 42:1175–1176CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Sessler G, West J (1971) Directional transducers. IEEE Trans Audio Electroacoustic 19:19–23CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Elko GW (2000) Superdirectional microphone arrays. In: SL Gay, J Benesty (eds) Acoustic signal processing for telecommunication, Chapter 10. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Boston, MA, pp. 181–237Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Williamsen M (2009) Design and measurement of a dipole microphone, AudioXpress, vol 7, pp 1–8Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Teutsch H, Elko GW (2001) First- and second-order adaptive differential microphone arrays. In: Proceedings of the IWAENCGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Pekonen J (2008) Microphone techniques for spatial sound. In: Proceedings of the 2008 acoustics seminar on spatial sound modelingGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Abhayapala TD, Gupta A (2010) Higher order differential-integral microphone arrays. J Acoust Soc Am 127:EL-227–233Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Bitzer J, Kammeyer K-D, Simmer KU (1999) An alternative implementation of the superdirective beamformer. In: Proceedings of the IEEE WASPAAGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Buck M (2002) Aspects of first-order differential microphone arrays in the presence of sensor imperfections. Eur Trans Telecommun 13:115–122CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Sena ED, Hac1habiboğlu H, Cvetković Z (2012) On the design and implementation of higher-order differential microphones. IEEE Trans Audio Speech Lang Process 20:162–174Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Hamacher V, Chalupper J, Eggers J, Fischer E, Kornagel U, Puder H, Rass U (2005) Signal processing in high-end hearing aids: state of the art, challenges, and future trends. EURASIP J Appl Signal Process 2005:2915–2929CrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Derkx R (2008) Optimal azimuthal steering of a first-order supperdirectional microphone response. In: Procedings of the IWAENCGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Miles RN, Liu Y, Su Q, Cui E (2007) A silicon directional microphone with second-order directivity. In: Proceedings of the international congress on acousticsGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Kolundžija M, Faller C, Vetterli M (2009) Spatio-temporal gradient analysis of differential microphone arrays. In: Proceedings of the audio engineering society conventionGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Benesty J, Chen J (2013) Study and design of differential microphone arrays. Springer, BerlinCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Chen J, Benesty J, Pan C (2014) On the design and implementation of linear differential microphone arrays. J Acoust Soc Am 136:3097–3113CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Pan C, Benesty J, Chen J (2015) Design of robust differential microphone arrays with orthogonal polynomial. J Acoust Soc Am 138:1079–1089CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Pan C, Chen J, Benesty J (2015) Theoretical analysis of differential microphone array beamforming and an improved solution. IEEE/ACM Trans Audio Speech Lang Process 23:2093–2105Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Pan C, Benesty J, Chen J (2016) Design of directivity patterns with a unique null of maximum multiplicity. IEEE/ACM Trans Audio Speech Lang Process 24:226–235Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.INRS-EMT, University of QuebecMontrealCanada
  2. 2.Northwestern Polytechnical UniversityXi’anChina

Personalised recommendations