The Effect of GNSS Sites Distribution on TEC Derivation

  • Xiaolan Wang
  • Guanyi Ma
  • Qingtao Wan
  • Jinghua Li
  • Jiangtao Fan
  • Jie Zhang
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Electrical Engineering book series (LNEE, volume 388)

Abstract

With worldwide increased Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) receivers, it is possible to obtain the ionospheric total electron content (TEC) and hence monitor the ionosphere with GNSS. Using a thin layer assumption of the ionosphere and dual-frequency Global Positioning System (GPS) observations from 16 geomagnetically quiet days in four seasons of 2006, this paper adopts the spherical harmonic model to fit TEC and investigates the effects of two network constitutions on global TEC derivation, one with 275 GPS receivers and the other with 125 GPS receivers. The results show that the data can be well fitted for both network constitutions. The derived TECs are consistent with each other for four seasons. This is especially true for TECs at low- and mid-latitude. The derived satellite and receiver biases are stable during the year. The standard deviation of the satellite and the receiver biases are less than 0.5 and 3 ns, respectively.

Keywords

GPS TEC Sites distribution Spherical harmonic model 

Notes

Acknowledgments

This work is supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11473045, 11403045).

References

  1. 1.
    Lanyi GE, Roth T (1988) A comparison of mapped and measured total ionospheric electron content using global positioning system and beacon satellite observations. Radio Sci 23(4):483–492CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Coco DS, Coker C, Dahlke SR, Clynch JR (1991) Variability of GPS satellite differential group delay biases. IEEE Trans Aerosp Electron Sys 27(6):931–938CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Sardon E, Rius A, Zarraoa N (1994) Estimation of the transmitter and receiver differential biases and the ionospheric total electron content from global positioning system observations. Radio Sci 29(3):577–586CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Mannucci A, Wilson B, Yuan D, Ho C, Lindqwister U, Runge T (1998) A global mapping technique for GPS-derived ionospheric total electron content measurements. Radio Sci 33(3):565–582CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Iijima B, Harris I, Ho C, Lindqwister U, Mannucci A, Pi X, Reyes M, Sparks L, Wilson B (1999) Automated daily process for global ionospheric total electron content maps and satellite ocean altimeter ionospheric calibration based on global positioning system data. J Atmos Sol Terr Phys 61(16):1205–1218CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Rideout W, Coster A (2006) Automated GPS processing for global total electron content data. GPS Solut 10(3):219–228CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Ma G, Maruyama T (2003) Derivation of TEC and estimation of instrumental biases from GEONET in Japan. Ann Geophys 21:2083–2093CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Li Z, Yuan Y, Li H, Ou J, Huo X (2012) Two-step method for the determination of the differential code biases of COMPASS satellites. J Geod. doi: 10.1007/s00190-012-0565-4 Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Gao W, Ma G, Chen Y, Shen H, Li J, Huang W, Li Z (2008) Derivation of GPS-TEC and instrumentao biases in the equatorial anomaly region. Chin J Space Sci 28(6):541–546Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Ma G, Gao W, Li J, Chen Y, Shen H (2014) Estimation of GPS instrumental biases from small scale network. Adv Space Res 54:871–882CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Kaplan ED, Hegarty CJ (2006) Understanding GPS: principles and applications. Artech House Publishers, LondonGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Liu J, Chen J, Zhang Y, Li S, Ge M (1999) WADGPS principle and method. Surveying and mapping Press, WuhanGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    http://gpspp.sakura.ne.jp/, Cited 20 Mar 2015
  14. 14.
    Zhang X (2004) Matrix analysis and applications. Tsinghua University Press, BeijingGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Singapore 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Xiaolan Wang
    • 1
    • 2
  • Guanyi Ma
    • 1
  • Qingtao Wan
    • 1
  • Jinghua Li
    • 1
  • Jiangtao Fan
    • 1
  • Jie Zhang
    • 1
  1. 1.National Astronomical ObservatoriesChinese Academy of SciencesBeijingChina
  2. 2.University of Chinese Academy of SciencesBeijingChina

Personalised recommendations