Determination and Comparison of the Anisotropic Strengths of Fused Deposition Modeling P400 ABS

  • Kshitiz UpadhyayEmail author
  • Ravi Dwivedi
  • Ankur Kumar Singh


Fused deposition modeling (FDM) is an additive layered manufacturing technique used to build prototypes and functional products out of thermoplastic materials. The properties of the FDM parts are affected by many factors like geometry of the material bead, process conditions, and orientation of the part and layers etc. The present study focuses on the effect of build direction on the mechanical properties of acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) P400 part specimens. Tensile, compressive, Izod impact, and hardness tests were performed on specimens built in the horizontal and vertical orientations with an intention to find the build direction that gives maximum strength in a particular working condition. Fractured specimens were then analyzed under the Jeol JSM 5600 Scanning Electron Microscope to study the impact failure pattern. The findings of this research can further be used to formulate product design rules for optimizing mechanical strength in layered manufacturing.


Rapid prototyping Anisotropy Fused deposition modeling ABS Build orientation Mechanical strength 


  1. 1.
    Pham DT, Demov SS (2001) Rapid manufacturing: the technologies and applications of rapid prototyping and rapid tooling. Springer-Verlag London LimitedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Kai CC, Fai LK (2000) Rapid prototyping: principles and applications in manufacturing. World ScientificGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Tagore GRN, Anjikar SD, Venu Gopal A (2007) Multi objective optimisation of build orientation for rapid prototyping with fused deposition modeling (FDM). In: Seventeenth Solid Freeform Fabrication (SFF) Symposium, Austin, pp 246–255Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Wright PK (2001) 21st century manufacturing. Prentice HallGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Ahn SH, Montero M, Odell D, Roundy S, Wright PK (2002) Anisotropic material properties of fused deposition modeling ABS. Rapid Prototyping J 8(4):248–257CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Sun Q, Rizvi GM, Bellehumeur CT, Gu P (2008). Effect of processing conditions on the bonding quality of FDM polymer filaments. Rapid Prototyping J 14(2):72–80Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Swanson WJ, Turley PW, Leavitt PJ, Karwoski PJ, LaBossiere E, Skubic RL (2004) High temperature modeling apparatus. United States Patent. US 6,722,872 B1”Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Novakova-Marcincinova L, Novak-Marcincin J (2012) Testing of materials for rapid prototyping fused deposition modelling technology. World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology 70(73)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Sood Anoop Kumar, Ohdar RK, Mahapatra SS (2010) Parametric appraisal of mechanical property of fused deposition modeling parts. Mater Des 31:287–295CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Lee BH, Abdullah J, Khan ZA (2005) Optimization of rapid prototyping parameters for production of flexible ABS object. J Mater Process Technol 169:54–61CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Hossain MS, Ramos J, Espalin D, Perez M, Wicker R (2013) Improving tensile mechanical properties of FDM-manufactured specimens via modifying build parameters. In: International Solid Freeform Fabrication Symposium, pp 380–392Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Fatimatuzahraa AW, Farahaina B, Yusoff WAY (2011) The effect of employing different raster orientations on the mechanical properties and microstructure of fused deposition modeling parts. In: IEEE symposium on business, engineering and industrial applications, pp 22–27Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Anitha R, Arunachalam S, Radhakrishnan P (2001) Critical parameters influencing the quality of prototypes in fused deposition modelling. J Mater Process Technol 118:385–388Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Reddy BV, Reddy NV, Ghosh A (2007) Fused deposition modelling using direct extrusion. Virtual Phys Prototyping 2:51–60CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Es-Said OS, Foyos J, Noorani R, Mandelson M, Marloth R, Pregger BA (2000) Effect of layer orientation on mechanical properties of rapid prototyped samples. Mater Manuf Process 15(1):107–122CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Thrimurthulu K, Pandey PM, Reddy NV (2004) Optimum part deposition orientation in fused deposition modelling. Int J Mach Tools Manuf 44:585–594CrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Waghchore RK (2012) Determination of build orientation of rapid prototyping (RP) components for optimum builds time. Int J Adv Technol Eng Res 2(2):27–31Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Masood SH, Rattanawong W, Iovenitti P (2003) A generic algorithm for part orientation system for complex parts in rapid prototyping. J Mater Process Technol 139(1–3):110–116CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Byun H-S, Lee KH (2006) Determination of the optimal build direction for different rapid prototyping processes using multi-criterion decision making. Robotics Comput-Integr Manuf Elsevier 22:69–80CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Lee CS, Kim SG, Kim HJ, Ahn SH (2007) Measurement of anisotropic compressive strength of rapid prototyping parts. J Mater Process Technol 187–188:627CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Agnes B, Volker S (2011) Mechanical properties of fused deposition modelling parts manufactured with ULTEM*9085. ANTEC 2011, BostonGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Anna B, Guceri S (2003) Mechanical characterization of parts fabricated using fused deposition modelling. Rapid Prototyping J 9(4):252–264CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Agarwala MK, Jamalabad VR, Langrana NA, Safari A, Whalen PJ, Danforth SC (1996) Structural quality of parts processed by fused deposition. Rapid Prototyping J 2(4):4–19CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    ASM (1988) Engineered materials handbook, engineering plastic, ASM international, vol 2Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Singapore 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kshitiz Upadhyay
    • 1
    Email author
  • Ravi Dwivedi
    • 1
  • Ankur Kumar Singh
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Mechanical EngineeringMaulana Azad National Institute of TechnologyBhopalIndia

Personalised recommendations