Ochlandra Thwaites

  • Ratan Lal Banik
Part of the Tropical Forestry book series (TROPICAL)


Members of the genus Ochlandra, referred to as reed bamboo, are thin-walled and thickly clumped endemic bamboo of the South Western Ghats of India (10 species) and Sri Lanka (1 species). Among the different species occurring under the genus Ochlandra in India, O. travancorica and O. scriptoria are found to grow in abundance. Ochlandra scriptoria (Dennst.) CEC Fisher is an endemic reed bamboo of Western Ghats (Koshy and Harikumar 2001) and found along the stream banks in the lower elevations. This is a small and thin reed widely distributed in the Southern Kerala and in smaller portions in the northern part (Basha 1991). All the species have relatively large fruits with thick pericarp, such as those of Melocanna, but smaller, and also a large number of floral parts, especially the stamens (as many as 120 in one floret. Little is known about the genus, and more intensive investigation is required (Dransfield 1980). However, two species, Ochlandra travancorica and O. stridula, are described below due to their socio-economic and ecological importance in southern India and Sri Lanka.


Evergreen Forest Bamboo Species Elephant Grass Culm Height Culm Diameter 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. B., TF (1887) Seeding of bamboos. Indian Forester 13:579 [mentioned in Janzen DH (1976) Why bamboos wait so long to flower. Annu Rev Ecol Syst 7:347–391]Google Scholar
  2. Basha CS (1991) Ochlandra (Bamboo Reed) a vanishing asset of forests in Kerala – South India. In: Bamboo in Asia Pacific. Proceedings of 4th international bamboo workshop, Chiangmai. International Development Research Centre (IDRC), Canada/Forestry Research Support Programme for Asia and the Pacific (FORSPA), Bangkok, pp 18–25Google Scholar
  3. Beena VB (2011) Reproductive biology and biochemical changes associated with flowering of Dendrocalamus stocksii and Ochlandra travancorica. PhD thesis, Cochin University of Science and Technology, KFRI, Kerala, pp 1–147Google Scholar
  4. Bejoy M, Anish NP, Radhika BJ, Nair GM (2012) In vitro propagation of Ochlandra wightii (Munro) Fisch.: an endemic reed of southern western ghats India. Biotechnol 11(2):67–73CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Blatter E (1929–1930) The flowering of bamboos. J Bombay Natural History Society 33:899–921; 34:135–141, 447–467Google Scholar
  6. Dransfield S (1980) Bamboo taxonomy in the Indo-Malesian Region. In: Lesserd G, Chouinard A (eds) Bamboo research in Asia. Proceedings of a workshop, Singapore, 28-30 May, IDRC, Ottawa, IUFRO, pp 121–130Google Scholar
  7. Gopakumar B, Motwani B (2013) Factors restraining the natural regeneration of reed bamboo Ochlandra travancorica and O. wightii in Western Ghats India. J Trop For Sci 25(2):250–258Google Scholar
  8. Holttum RE (1956) The classification of bamboos. Phytomorphology 6:73–90Google Scholar
  9. Kariyawasam D (1999) Bamboo resources and utilization in Sri Lanka. In: Rao AN, Rao VR (eds) Bamboo conservation, diversity, ecogeography, germplasm resource utilization and taxonomy. Proceedings of a training course cum workshop, 10–17 May 1998. Kunming and Xishuangbanna Yunnan China IPGRI-APO Serdang, Malaysia, pp 235–247Google Scholar
  10. Koshy KC, Harikumar D (2001) Reproductive biology of Ochlandra scriptoria, an endemic reed bamboo of Western Ghat, India. Bamboo Sci Cult 15(1):1–7Google Scholar
  11. Koshy KC, Dintu KP, Gopakumar B (2010) The enigma of leaf size and plant size in bamboos. Curr Sci 99:1025–1027Google Scholar
  12. Kumar M (1988) Reed Bamboos (Ochlandra) in Kerala: distribution and management. In: Rao Ramanuja IV, Gnanaharan R, Sastry CB (eds) Bamboos – current research. Proceedings of the international bamboo workshop, Cochin, KFRI, IDRC, pp 39–43Google Scholar
  13. Kumar M (2011) Grasses and bamboos. (Part- II), Bamboos of Peninsular India, All India coordinated Project on Taxonomy (AICOPTAX). KFRI Research Report No 399, pp 1–140Google Scholar
  14. Manoharan TM, Trivedi BNV (2008) Forest policy and laws governing cultivation, harvesting, transport and trade of bamboo in Kerala. In: Choudhary ML, Salam K (eds) Proceedings on international conference on improvement of bamboo productivity and marketing for sustainable livelihood, 15–17 Apr 2008, New Delhi, pp 182–192Google Scholar
  15. Noushad KAM (2008) Industrial utilization and value addition of reed bamboo in Kerala. In: Proceedings of international conference on improvement of bamboo productivity and marketing for sustainable livelihood, 15–17 Apr 2008, New Delhi, pp 390–396Google Scholar
  16. Rao VR, Gairola SC, Shashikala S, Sethy AK (2008) Bamboo utilization in Southern India. Indian Forester 134(3):379–386Google Scholar
  17. Seethalakshmi KK (2006) Flowering of bamboos and management of flowered bamboo. In: International training workshop on bamboo propagation, management and harvesting; Methods, Policy issues & strategies, 27 Feb–05 Mar 2006. KFRI/INBAR/CIBART, Peechi, pp 26–30Google Scholar
  18. Seethalakshmi KK, Gnanaharan R (1998) Two decades with the giant grass. Evergreen 41:1–6Google Scholar
  19. Seethalakshmi KK, Kumar M (1998) Bamboos of India: a compendium. KFRI, Peechi; International Network for Bamboo and Rattan (INBAR), BeijingGoogle Scholar
  20. Seethalakshmi KK, Surendran T, Somen CK (1988) Vegetative propagation of Ochlandra travancorica and O. scriptoria by culm cuttings. In: Ramanuja Rao IV, Gnanaharan R, Sastry CB (eds) Bamboos – current research. Proceedings of the international bamboo workshop, 14–18 Nov. KFRI, Cochin, pp 136–143Google Scholar
  21. Soderstrom TR, Ellis RP (1988) The woody bamboo (Poacea: Bambuseae) of Sri Lanka: a morphological- anatomical study. Smithson Contrib Bot 72:66–73Google Scholar
  22. Sujatha MP, Thomas T, Pand Sankar S (2008) Influence of reed bamboo (Ochlandra travancorica) on the soils of the Western Ghats in Kerala – a comparative study with adjacent non-reed bamboo areas. Indian Forester 134(3):403–416Google Scholar
  23. Surendran T, Seethalakshmi KK (1985) Investigations on the possibility of vegetative propagation of bamboos and reeds by rooting stem cuttings. KFRI Res. Report No. 31, Kerala Forest Research Institute, Peechi, pp 1–47Google Scholar
  24. Venkatesh CS (1984) Dichogamy and breeding system in a tropical bamboo Ochlandra travancorica. Biotropica 16:309–312CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Zoysa Neela de (1994). Ochlandra stridula Moon ex Thw-a profile. Proc 4th Intl Bamboo Workshop on Bamboo in Asia and the Asia Pacific, Nov 27–30 1991, Chiangmai Thailand IDRC/FAO(FORSPA)-UNDP, Bangkok, pp 41–47Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Singapore 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ratan Lal Banik
    • 1
  1. 1.NMBA (National Mission on Bamboo Applications)New DelhiIndia

Personalised recommendations