Understanding ‘Out of School’ Issues for Ethnic Minority Young People in Hong Kong

  • Miron Kumar Bhowmik
  • Kerry J. Kennedy
Part of the Education in the Asia-Pacific Region: Issues, Concerns and Prospects book series (EDAP, volume 32)


The findings of Chaps. 4, 5, 6, 7, and 8 are summarized with comprehensive and critical discussion, referencing the theoretical frameworks and wider literature utilized in this research. For issues that could not be easily explained, broader frameworks and wider literature were drawn upon. Implications for Hong Kong education policy, practice and theory, and how these related to the findings are discussed. The chapter starts with the extent of ‘out of school’ ethnic minority young people in Hong Kong and implications. The reasons for ethnic minority young people being ‘out of school’ are organized and discussed according to factors identified with case study participants and interviews with other stakeholders. Factors are organized into 17 themes: low academic achievement; over-age and retention or repetition; low education aspiration; attendance issue; Chinese language; behavioral problems; employment; involvement with gangs; health issues; school changes or student mobility; peer factors; family factors; school factors; community factors; differences of culture in education; immigration and citizenship; and racism. Family factors and school factors are further sub-divided. For the other stakeholders, special educational needs and stereotypes were factors that also identified. Gender and school failure, and implications are discussed. Finally, the life of ethnic minority young people in Hong Kong and implications are reported.


Ethnic Minority Chinese Student High Dropout Rate School Failure Critical Race Theory 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Singapore 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Miron Kumar Bhowmik
    • 1
  • Kerry J. Kennedy
    • 1
  1. 1.The Hong Kong Institute of EducationNew TerritoriesHong Kong

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