Other Stakeholders’ Views About the ‘Out of School’ Issue for Ethnic Minority Young People

  • Miron Kumar Bhowmik
  • Kerry J. Kennedy
Part of the Education in the Asia-Pacific Region: Issues, Concerns and Prospects book series (EDAP, volume 32)


Interview data with three ethnic minority community leaders from Nepalese, Pakistani and Bangladeshi communities in Hong Kong; two government officials; one teacher who taught secondary level ethnic minority students; and one NGO professional, were drawn upon to understand perspectives on the magnitude of the ‘out of school’ phenomenon for ethnic minority young people, reasons, and the ‘out of school’ life of ethnic minority young people. Issues included being caught in a vicious cycle with no upward social mobility due to not possessing a university degree and, therefore, being unemployable in Hong Kong. Similarly to factors discussed by students, parents and school teachers (Chaps.  4,  5,  6, and  7), these interviewees considered poor academic achievement; inadequate school provision; low educational aspirations; Chinese language concerns (including a gap existing between achieved Chinese qualification and that required for higher education and employment); behavioural problems; racism; and ethnic minority stereotypes to be reasons for students dropping ‘out of school’. Some primary and secondary school dropouts younger than 15 usually return to school; some are placed in NGOs or vocational bridging courses to allow for an alternative vocational path. Alternatively, others would seek employment if over 15 or apply to study on vocational courses.


Ethnic Minority Community Leader Asylum Seeker Chinese Student Chinese Language 
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  1. Bhowmik, M. K. (2012). Ethnic minority community leader calls for working together. Ethnic Voice Weekly, 1(7), 8–9.Google Scholar
  2. Equal Opportunities Commission [EOC]. (2011). Education for all – Report on the Working Group on Education for Ethnic Minorities. Hong Kong. Retrieved from
  3. Ku, H. B., Chan, K. W., & Sandhu, K. K. (2005). A research report on the education of South Asian ethnic minority groups in Hong Kong. Hong Kong: Centre for Social Policy Studies, Department of Applied Social Sciences, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University and Unison Hong Kong.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Singapore 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Miron Kumar Bhowmik
    • 1
  • Kerry J. Kennedy
    • 1
  1. 1.The Hong Kong Institute of EducationNew TerritoriesHong Kong

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