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‘Out of School’ Ethnic Minority Young People: Multiple Data Sources, Their Meaning, and Extent of the ‘Out of School’ Phenomenon

  • Miron Kumar Bhowmik
  • Kerry J. Kennedy
Chapter
  • 645 Downloads
Part of the Education in the Asia-Pacific Region: Issues, Concerns and Prospects book series (EDAP, volume 32)

Abstract

This chapter draws on census data, national and international educational statistics reports, and three schools enrolment figures to understand the extent of ‘out of school’ ethnic minority young people in Hong Kong. Inconsistencies exist within reported statistics including census and Education Bureau (EDB) datasets. Employing the ‘Five Dimensions of Exclusion’ (UNICEF and the UNESCO Institute for Statistics, All children in school by 2015, global initiative on out-of-school children. UIS, Montreal, 2010) and CREATE’s ‘Seven Zones of Exclusion’ (Lewin K, Improving access, equity and transitions in education: creating a research agenda. CREATE pathways to access research monograph, no. 1. University of Sussex, Brighton, 2007), Hong Kong education was analysed regarding ‘out of school’ ethnic minority young people. School attendance rate analyses indicated the issue could be 25 % at upper secondary and above 85 % by post-secondary. More consistent and better quality data are needed to ascertain the extent of the ‘out of school’ phenomenon for both Chinese and ethnic minority young people. School enrolment and relevant interview data provided rich insights confirming the phenomenon was very much prevalent. Ethnic minority students appeared to drop out throughout the primary and secondary levels, with the end of Form Three being the first critical point. New arrival ethnic minority students were considered to drop out more than Hong Kong born students. Finally, Pakistani and Nepalese young people dropped out more than other ethnic minorities and gender-wise ethnic minority boys more so than girls.

Keywords

Ethnic Minority Chinese Student Ethnic Minority Population Full Time Education Ethnic Minority Student 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Singapore 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Miron Kumar Bhowmik
    • 1
  • Kerry J. Kennedy
    • 1
  1. 1.The Hong Kong Institute of EducationNew TerritoriesHong Kong

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