Advertisement

Theoretical Framework, Methodology and Methods

  • Miron Kumar Bhowmik
  • Kerry J. Kennedy
Chapter
  • 677 Downloads
Part of the Education in the Asia-Pacific Region: Issues, Concerns and Prospects book series (EDAP, volume 32)

Abstract

The theoretical framework drew upon existing broader frameworks and relevant literature to understand the extent of ‘out of school’ ethnic minority young people in Hong Kong. Rumberger’s (Dropping out: why students drop out of high school and what can be done about it. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA, 2011) conceptual framework that unpacked the school dropout issue in the United States and Hunt’s (Dropping out from school: A cross country review of literature. CREATE pathways to access research monograph, no. 16. University of Sussex, Brighton, 2008) similar work in developing countries were consulted. This study was qualitative in design, employing a case study method (Stake, Case studies. In: Denzin NK, Lincoln YS (eds), Handbook of qualitative research, 2nd edn. Sage, Thousand Oaks, pp. 435–454, 2000) falling within the post-positivist paradigm, following Lather’s (Getting lost: feminist efforts towards a double(d) science. SUNY Press, Albany, 2007) frame of reference. Seeking to understand the realities of ‘out of school’ ethnic minority young people from multiple perspectives, 11 such young people were interviewed, as well as 20 stakeholders including principals, teachers, government officials and NGO professionals. Some young people were also observed. Two secondary and one primary school participated. Census statistics and school enrolment data were analysed, providing broader understandings of circumstances and issues for Hong Kong’s ‘out of school’ ethnic minority young people. Data analysis steps identified units of analysis, coding data, sorting and checking codes, and creating an explanatory schema (Foss and Waters, Destination dissertation: a traveler’s guide to a done dissertation. Rowan & Littlefield Publishers, Inc, Lanham, 2007). Coding was informed by all theoretical frameworks including critical race theory. Limitations including time constraints to conduct an ethnographic study and no case study participant from the Indian community were noted.

Keywords

Ethnic Minority School Failure Critical Race Theory Race Theory Critical Race 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. Adair, J., & Pastori, G. (2011). Developing qualitative coding frameworks for educational research: Education, immigration, and the children crossing borders project. International Journal of Research and Method in Education, 34(1), 31–47.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Allmark, P. J., Boote, J., Chambers, E., Clarke, A., Mcdonnell, A., Thompson, A., & Tod, A. (2009). Ethical issues in the use of in-depth interviews: Literature review and discussion. Research Ethics Review, 5(2), 48–54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bauböck, R. (2011). Temporary migrants, partial citizenship and hypermigration. Critical Review of International Social and Political Philosophy, 14(5), 665–693.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bekerman, Z., & Geisen, T. (2012). International handbook of migration, minorities and education: Understanding cultural and social differences in processes of learning. Dordrecht: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bell, D. (1980). Brown v. Board of education and the interest convergence dilemma. Harvard Law Review, 93, 518.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bhowmik, M. K. (2012a). Conquering Chinese: One for all? Ethnic Voice Weekly, 1(3), 1–5.Google Scholar
  7. Bhowmik, M. K. (2012b). Ethnic minority community leader calls for working together. Ethnic Voice Weekly, 1(7), 8–9.Google Scholar
  8. Bloemraad, I., Korteweg, A., & Yurdakul, G. (2008). Citizenship and immigration: Multiculturalism, assimilation, and challenges to the Nation-State. Annual Review of Sociology, 34, 153–179.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Brantlinger, E., Jimenez, R., Klingner, J., Pugach, M., & Richardson, V. (2005). Qualitative studies in special education. Exceptional Children, 71(2), 195–207.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Carol, C. C. W. (2012). The alienating school: An ethnographic study of school dropout and education quality in poor, rural China. (Unpublished PhD thesis). Hong Kong: University of Hong Kong. Retrieved from http://hub.hku.hk/bitstream/10722/173836/1/FullText.pdf?accept=1
  11. Census and Statistics Department. (2012). 2011 population census, thematic report: Ethnic minorities. The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region. Retrieved from http://www.statistics.gov.hk/pub/B11200622012XXXXB0100.pdf
  12. Delgado, R. (Ed.). (1995). Critical race theory: The cutting edge. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.Google Scholar
  13. Denzin, N. K., & Lincoln, Y. S. (2000). Handbook of qualitative research (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks: Sage.Google Scholar
  14. Flyvbjerg, B. (2006). Five misunderstandings about case-study research. Qualitative Inquiry, 12(2), 219–245. doi: 10.1177/1077800405284363.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Fontana, A., & Frey, J. H. (1994). Interviewing: The art of science. In N. K. Denzin & Y. S. Lincoln (Eds.), Handbook of qualitative research (pp. 361–376). Thousand Oaks: Sage.Google Scholar
  16. Foss, S. K., & Waters, W. (2007). Destination dissertation: A traveler’s guide to a done dissertation. Lanham: Rowan & Littlefield Publishers.Google Scholar
  17. Glaser, B. L. (1978). Theoretical sensitivity. Mill Valley: Sociology Press.Google Scholar
  18. Glesne, C. (1999). Becoming qualitative researchers: An introduction (2nd ed.). Don Mills: Longman.Google Scholar
  19. Glesne, C., & Peshkin, A. (1992). Becoming qualitative researcher: An introduction. White Plains: Longman.Google Scholar
  20. Gu, M., & Patkin, J. (2013). Heritage and identity: Ethnic minority students from south Asia in Hong Kong. Linguistics and Education, 24(2), 131–141. doi: 10.1016/j.linged.2012.12.008.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Hunt, F. (2008). Dropping out from school: A cross country review of literature (CREATE pathways to access research monograph, Vol. 16). Brighton: University of Sussex.Google Scholar
  22. Khan, S., & Van Wynsberghe, R. (2008). Cultivating the under-mined: Cross-case analysis as knowledge mobilization. Forum: Qualitative Social Research, 9(1), Art. 34. Retrieved from http://www.qualitative-research.net/index.php/fqs/article/view/334/729.
  23. Ku, H. B., Chan, K. W., & Sandhu, K. K. (2005). A research report on the education of south Asian ethnic minority groups in Hong Kong. Hong Kong: Centre for Social Policy Studies, Department of Applied Social Sciences, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University and Unison Hong Kong.Google Scholar
  24. Ku, H. B., Chan, K. W., Lo, S. L., & Singh, T. (2010). (Re)understanding multiracial Hong Kong: Eight stories of south Asians in Hong Kong. Hong Kong: Department of Applied Social Sciences, Hong Kong Polytechnic University.Google Scholar
  25. Ladson-Billings, G., & Tate, W. F. (1995). Toward a critical race theory of education. Teachers College Record, 97(1), 47–68.Google Scholar
  26. Lather, P. (2007). Getting lost: Feminist efforts towards a double(d) science. Albany: SUNY Press.Google Scholar
  27. Lewin, K. (2007). Improving access, equity and transitions in education: Creating a research agenda (CREATE pathways to access research monograph, Vol. 1). Brighton: University of Sussex.Google Scholar
  28. Lofland, J. (1971). Analyzing social settings. Belmont: Wadsworth.Google Scholar
  29. López, G. R. (2003). The (racially neutral) politics of education: A critical race theory perspective. Educational Administration Quarterly, 39(1), 68–94. doi: 10.1177/0013161X02239761.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Opheim, V. (2004). Equity in education. Country analytic report, Norway. NIFU: Norwegian Institute for Studies in Research and Higher Education. Retrieved from http://www.nifu.no/Norway/Publications/2004/R-2004-7.pdf
  31. Rumberger, R. W. (2011). Dropping out: Why students drop out of high school and what can be done about it. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Russell, G. M., & Kelly, N. H. (2002). Research as interacting dialogic processes: Implications for reflexivity. Forum: Qualitative Social Research, 3(3), Art. 18. Retrieved from http://www.qualitative-research.net/fqs-texte/3-02/3-02russellkelly-e.htm.
  33. Ryan, G. W., & Bernard, H. R. (2000). Data management and analysis methods. In N. K. Denzin & Y. S. Lincoln (Eds.), Handbook of qualitative research (2nd ed., pp. 769–802). Thousand Oaks: Sage.Google Scholar
  34. Silverman, D. (2001). Interpreting qualitative data: Methods for analysing talk, text and interaction (2nd ed.). London: Sage.Google Scholar
  35. Silverman, D. (2011). Interpreting qualitative data: A guide to the principles of qualitative research (4th ed.). London: Sage.Google Scholar
  36. Sinding, C., & Aronson, J. (2003). Exposing failures, unsettling accommodations: Tensions in interview practice. Qualitative Research, 3(1), 95–117.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Solórzano, D. G., & Yosso, T. J. (2002). Critical race methodology: Counter-storytelling as an analytical framework for education research. Qualitative Inquiry, 8(1), 23–44. doi: 10.1177/107780040200800103.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Stake, R. E. (1994). Case studies. In N. K. Denzin & Y. S. Lincoln (Eds.), Handbook of qualitative research (pp. 236–247). Thousand Oaks: Sage.Google Scholar
  39. Stake, R. (1995). The art of case study research. Thousand Oaks: Sage.Google Scholar
  40. Stake, R. E. (2000). Case studies. In N. K. Denzin & Y. S. Lincoln (Eds.), Handbook of qualitative research (2nd ed., pp. 435–454). Thousand Oaks: Sage.Google Scholar
  41. Strauss, A., & Corbin, J. (1998). Basics of qualitative research: Techniques and procedures for developing grounded theory (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks: Sage.Google Scholar
  42. Taylor, E. (2009). The foundations of critical race theory in education: An introduction. In E. Taylor, D. Gillborn, & G. Ladson-Billings (Eds.), Foundations of critical race theory in education (pp. 3–13). New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  43. UNICEF and the UNESCO Institute for Statistics. (2010). All children in school by 2015, global initiative on out-of-school children. Montreal: UIS.Google Scholar
  44. Watt, D. (2007). On becoming a qualitative researcher: The value of reflexivity. The Qualitative Report, 12(1), 82–101. Retrieved from http://www.nova.edu/ssss/QR/QR12-1/watt.pdf.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Singapore 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Miron Kumar Bhowmik
    • 1
  • Kerry J. Kennedy
    • 1
  1. 1.The Hong Kong Institute of EducationNew TerritoriesHong Kong

Personalised recommendations