Theoretical Framework, Methodology and Methods

  • Miron Kumar Bhowmik
  • Kerry J. Kennedy
Part of the Education in the Asia-Pacific Region: Issues, Concerns and Prospects book series (EDAP, volume 32)


The theoretical framework drew upon existing broader frameworks and relevant literature to understand the extent of ‘out of school’ ethnic minority young people in Hong Kong. Rumberger’s (Dropping out: why students drop out of high school and what can be done about it. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA, 2011) conceptual framework that unpacked the school dropout issue in the United States and Hunt’s (Dropping out from school: A cross country review of literature. CREATE pathways to access research monograph, no. 16. University of Sussex, Brighton, 2008) similar work in developing countries were consulted. This study was qualitative in design, employing a case study method (Stake, Case studies. In: Denzin NK, Lincoln YS (eds), Handbook of qualitative research, 2nd edn. Sage, Thousand Oaks, pp. 435–454, 2000) falling within the post-positivist paradigm, following Lather’s (Getting lost: feminist efforts towards a double(d) science. SUNY Press, Albany, 2007) frame of reference. Seeking to understand the realities of ‘out of school’ ethnic minority young people from multiple perspectives, 11 such young people were interviewed, as well as 20 stakeholders including principals, teachers, government officials and NGO professionals. Some young people were also observed. Two secondary and one primary school participated. Census statistics and school enrolment data were analysed, providing broader understandings of circumstances and issues for Hong Kong’s ‘out of school’ ethnic minority young people. Data analysis steps identified units of analysis, coding data, sorting and checking codes, and creating an explanatory schema (Foss and Waters, Destination dissertation: a traveler’s guide to a done dissertation. Rowan & Littlefield Publishers, Inc, Lanham, 2007). Coding was informed by all theoretical frameworks including critical race theory. Limitations including time constraints to conduct an ethnographic study and no case study participant from the Indian community were noted.


Ethnic Minority School Failure Critical Race Theory Race Theory Critical Race 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Singapore 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Miron Kumar Bhowmik
    • 1
  • Kerry J. Kennedy
    • 1
  1. 1.The Hong Kong Institute of EducationNew TerritoriesHong Kong

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