The Impacts of Artificial Reefs on the Income of Artisanal Fishers in Terengganu, Malaysia

  • Shaufique Fahmi SidiqueEmail author
  • Kusairi Mohd Noh
  • Gazi Md Nurul Islam
  • Aswani Farhana Mohd Noh


The marine fishery resources in Malaysia have declined considerably over the past decades primarily due to overfishing and overcapacity. In response, the government has deployed artificial reefs (ARs) to conserve and enhance the natural fish stocks in marine waters. Specifically, AR deployment was expected to rehabilitate the degraded fish stocks and secure the livelihoods of the fishers along the coastal villages. This study examined the impact of ARs on fisher households’ income in Terengganu, Malaysia. The data for this study was obtained from a survey involving 312 fisher respondents in 3 contiguous districts, namely, Besut, Setiu, and Kuala Terengganu. The results showed a difference in the value of catch of fishers fishing in an AR and those fishing in non-AR area. Fishers fishing near AR areas were found to benefit from higher monthly catch value. The regression models indicated that fishing in an AR area helps reduce the vessel operating costs. The catch value also significantly differed between fishers using an inboard-powered vessel and those fishers using outboard-powered vessels (on an average obtained MYR 5935 per month and MYR 3126 per month, respectively). Fishers using inboard-powered vessels were also less dependent on ARs as they were able to fish further to the sea.


Artificial reefs Terengganu Fisher’s income AR deployment Malaysian fisheries 


  1. Ahmad A, Raja Bidin RH, Yuttana T (2011) Enhancing management of fishery resources through intensified efforts in habitat conservation and rehabilitation, fish for the people. Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center (SEAFDEC), 9(2):10–20. ISBN: 1685–6546Google Scholar
  2. DOF (Department of Fisheries) (2008) Annual fisheries statistics, Putrajaya. Kuala LumpurGoogle Scholar
  3. DOF (Department of Fisheries) (2010) Annual fisheries statistics, Putrajaya. Kuala LumpurGoogle Scholar
  4. Jahara Y (1988) Fishery management and regulation in Peninsular Malaysia: issues and constraints. Mar Resour Econ 5(2):83–98CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Johnson TD, Barnett AM, Demartini EE, Craft LL, Ambrose RF, Purcell LJ (1994) Fish production and habitat utilization on a southern California artificial reef. Bull Mar Sci 55(2–3):709–723Google Scholar
  6. Kolian S, Sammarco PW (2006) The socio-economic impacts of sustainable fisheries. Job Creation And Marine Aquaculture, EcoRigs, LouisianaGoogle Scholar
  7. Latiff I (2008) Kajian Pendapatan Nelayan Tradisional 2008. Department of Fisheries, PutrajayaGoogle Scholar
  8. Polovina JJ, Sakai I (1989) Impacts of artificial reefs on fishery production in Shimamaki, Japan. Bull Mar Sci 44(2):997–1003Google Scholar
  9. Porter G (2001) Fisheries subsidies and overfishing: toward a structured discussion. United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), Nairobi. UNEP website
  10. Saharuddin AH, Ali A, Lokman MH, Salihin W (2012) Recent developments and management of artificial reefs (ARs) in Malaysia. In OCEANS, (Yeosu 2012), 2012 IEEE symposium, Kuala Lumpur, pp 1–23Google Scholar
  11. Stobutzki IC, Silvestre GT, Abu Talib A, Krongprom A, Supongpan M, Khemakorn P, Armada N, Garces LR (2006) Decline of demersal coastal fisheries resources in three developing Asian countries. Fish Res 78:130–142CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Sutton SG, Bushnell SL (2007) Socio-economic aspects of artificial reefs: considerations for the great barrier reef marine park. Ocean Coast Manag 50(10):829–846CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Talib AA, Isa MM, Ismail MS, Yusof S (2003) Status of demersal fishery resources of Malaysia. In: Silvestre G, Garces L, Stobutzki I, Luna C, Ahmed M, Valmonte-Santos RA, Lachica-Aliño L, Munro P, Christensen V, Pauly D (eds) Assessment, management and future directions for coastal fisheries in Asian countries. WorldFish center conference proceedings No. 67. WorldFish, PenangGoogle Scholar
  14. Venkatasami A, Sheik Mamode A (1995) Fish-aggregating devices (FADs) as a tool to enhance production of artisanal fishermen: problems and perspectives. Albion Fisheries Research Centre, MauritiusGoogle Scholar
  15. Whitmarsh D, Santos MN, Ramos J, Monteiro CC (2008) Marine habitat modification through artificial reefs off the Algarve (southern Portugal): an economic analysis of the fisheries and the prospects for management. Ocean Coast Manag 51:463–468CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Yodee K (1994) Bioeconomics of small-scale fisheries in the artificial reef areas in Ranong Province, Thailand. FAO (67):67–86Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Singapore 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Shaufique Fahmi Sidique
    • 1
    Email author
  • Kusairi Mohd Noh
    • 1
  • Gazi Md Nurul Islam
    • 2
  • Aswani Farhana Mohd Noh
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute of Agricultural and Food Policy StudiesUniversiti Putra MalaysiaSerdangMalaysia
  2. 2.School of Economics, Finance and Banking, College of BusinessUniversiti Utara MalaysiaKedahMalaysia

Personalised recommendations