Reaching Higher

College and Career Readiness for African American Males with Learning Disabilities
  • Paul C. Harris
  • Renae D. Mayes
  • Desireé Vega
  • Erik M. Hines
Part of the Studies in Inclusive Education book series (STUIE)


In the current educational climate, the focus has shifted from students not only being academically successful but also prepared for postsecondary educational opportunities, such as traditional four-year institutions, community colleges, career or vocational institutions.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. American School Counselor Association. (2012). The ASCA national model: A framework for school counseling programs (3rd ed.). Alexandria, VA: Author.Google Scholar
  2. American School Counselor Association. (2013). The professional school counselor and students with disabilities. Alexandria, VA: Author.Google Scholar
  3. Banks, J. (2014). Barriers and supports to postsecondary transition: Case studies of African American students with disabilities. Remedial and Special Education, 35(1), 28–39.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bonner II, F. A. (2014). Academically gifted African American males: Modeling achievement in the historically Black colleges and universities and predominantly White institutions context. In F. A. Bonner II (Ed.), Building on resilience: Models and frameworks of Black male success across the P-20 pipeline (pp. 109–124). Sterling, VA: Stylus Publishing.Google Scholar
  5. Bronfenbrenner, U. (1979). The ecology of human development: Experiments in nature and design. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  6. Bryan, J., & Henry, L. (2012). A model for building school-family-community partnerships: Principles and process. Journal of Counseling and Development, 90, 408–420.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Cameto, R., Levine, P., & Wagner, M. (2004). Transition planning for students with disabilities: A special topic report from the National Longitudinal Transition Study-2 (NLTS2). Menlo Park, CA: SRI International. Retrieved from Scholar
  8. Epstein, J. L. (2010). Center on school, family, and community partnerships. Retrieved from Scholar
  9. Fagan, T. K., & Wise, P. S. (2007). School psychology: Past, present, and future (3rd ed.). Bethesda, MD: National Association of School Psychologists.Google Scholar
  10. Fives, C. J. (2008). Vocational assessment of secondary students with disabilities and the school psychologist. Psychology in the Schools, 45, 508–520.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Flowers, A. (2014). Gifted, Black, male, and poor in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics: Achieving despite the odds. In F. A. Bonner II (Ed.), Building on resilience: Models and frameworks of Black male success across the P-20 pipeline (pp. 125–139). Sterling, VA: Stylus Publishing.Google Scholar
  12. Gardner III, R., & Mayes, R. D. (2013). African American learners. Preventing School Failure, 57(1), 22–29.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Geltner, J. A., & Leibforth, T. N. (2008). Advocacy in the IEP process: Strengths-based school counseling in action. Professional School Counseling, 12(2), 162–165.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Harrigan, P. G. (2004). A historical and legal examination of the free appropriate public education and the least restrictive environment provisions of the individuals with disabilities education act from 1975 to 2003 (Ed.D. Dissertation). Dowling College, New York, NY.Google Scholar
  15. Hines, E. M., & Holcomb-McCoy, C. (2013). Parental characteristics, ecological factors, and the academic development of African American males. Journal of Counseling and Development, 91(1), 68–77.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Joyce, D. K., & Grapin, S. (2012). Facilitating successful postsecondary transitions for students with disabilities. NASP Communiqué, 41(3), 20–23.Google Scholar
  17. Landmark, L. J., & Zhang, D. (2012). Compliance and practices in transition planning: A review of Individualized Education Program documents. Remedial and Special Education, 34(2), 113–125.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Lillenstein, D. J., & Levinson, E. M. (2006). School psychologist involvement in transition planning: A comparison of attitudes and perceptions of school psychologists and transition coordinators. The Journal for Vocational Special Needs Education, 29(1), 4–16.Google Scholar
  19. Martin, E. W., Martin, R., & Terman, D. L. (1996). The legislative and litigation history of special education. The Future of Children, 6(1), 25–39.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Mayes, R. D., & Moore III, J. L. (2016). The intersection of race, disability, and giftedness: Understanding the education needs of twice-exceptional, African American students. Gifted Child Today, 39(2), 98–104.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Mayes, R. D., Hines, E. M., & Harris, P. C. (2014). Working with twice-exceptional African American students: Information for school counselors. Interdisciplinary Journal of Teaching and Learning, 4(2), 125–139.Google Scholar
  22. McEachern, A. G., & Kenny, M. C. (2007). Transition groups for high school students with disabilities. The Journal for Specialists in Group Work, 32, 165–177.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Miller Dyce, C. (2013). Disappearing into the unknown: The state of Black male achievement in American public schools. Multicultural Perspectives, 15(3), 165–167.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Milsom, A., & Dietz, L. (2009). Defining college readiness for students with learning disabilities: A Delphi study. Professional School Counseling, 12(4), 315–323.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Morningstar, M. E., Lombardi, A., Fowler, C. H., & Test, D. W. (2015). A college and career readiness framework for secondary students with disabilities. Career Development and Transition for Exceptional Individuals. Retrieved from Scholar
  26. National Education Association. (n.d.). Special education and the individuals with disabilities education act. Retrieved from
  27. National Association of School Psychologists. (2010). NASP practice model: Improving outcomes for students and schools. Retrieved from
  28. National Association of School Psychologists. (2014). What is a school psychologist? Retrieved from
  29. National Center for Learning Disabilities. (2014). The state of learning disabilities (3rd ed.). New York, NY: Author.Google Scholar
  30. Newman, L., Wagner, M., Knokey, A. M., Marder, C., Nagle, K., Shaver, D., Wei, X., Cameto, R., Contreras, E., Ferguson, K., Greene, S., & Schwarting, M. (2011). The post-high school outcomes of young adults with disabilities up to 8 years after high school: A report from the national longitudinal transition study-2 (NLTS2) (NCSER 2011-3005). Menlo Park, CA: SRI International. Retrieved from Scholar
  31. Owens, D., Thomas, D., & Strong, L. A. (2011). School counselors assisting students with disabilities. Educator, 132(2), 235–240.Google Scholar
  32. Palmer, R. T., Davis, R. J., Moore III, J. L., & Hilton, A. A. (2010). A nation at risk: Increasing collegeGoogle Scholar
  33. participation and persistence among African American males to stimulate U.S. global competitiveness. Journal of African American Males in Education, 1(2), 105–124.Google Scholar
  34. Roderick, M., Nagaoka, J., & Coca, V. (2009). College readiness for all: The challenge for urban high schools. The Future of Children, 19(1), 185–210.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Rumrill, P., Palmer, C., Roessler, R., & Brown, P. (1999). Self-advocacy & conflict resolution training: Strategies for the classroom accommodation request. Project Accommodations Planning Training (APT), University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR.Google Scholar
  36. Santos de Barona, M., & Barona, A. (2006). School counselors and school psychologists: Collaborating to ensure minority students receive appropriate consideration for special educational programs. Professional School Counseling, 10(1), 3–13.Google Scholar
  37. Staab, M. J. (1996). The role of the school psychologist in transition planning (Doctoral dissertation, University of Kansas). Dissertation Abstracts International, 58, 251.Google Scholar
  38. Stambaugh, T., & Ford, D. Y. (2015). Microaggressions, multiculturalism, and gifted individuals who are Black, Hispanic, or low income. Journal of Counseling & Development, 93, 192–201.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Taub, D. J. (2006). Understanding the concerns of parents of students with disabilities: Challenges and roles for school counselors. Professional School Counseling, 10(1), 52–57.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. The College Board National Office of School Counselor Advocacy. (2010). The eight components of college and career readiness. Retrieved from
  41. The Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act. (IDEA, 2004). IDEA regulations: Secondary transition. Retrieved from
  42. Trainor, A. A. (2005). Self-determination perceptions and behaviors of diverse students with LD during the transition planning process. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 38, 233–249. doi: 10.1177/00222194050380030501CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Trainor, A. A., Morningstar, M. E., & Murray, A. (2015). Characteristics of transition planning and services for students with high-incidence disabilities. Learning Disabilities Quarterly. Retrieved from Scholar
  44. Trotman Scott, M, Mayes, R. D., Griffith, K. G., Garrett, M. T., & Watkins, J. (2015). Effective involvement with urban special education services: What every school counselor should know to support Black male students. In M. Henfield & A. Washington (Eds.), Black male student success in the 21st century urban schools: School counseling for equity, access, and achievement (pp. 173–194).Google Scholar
  45. Charlotte, NC: Information Age Publishing.Google Scholar
  46. U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics. (2010). National postsecondary student aid study. Washington, DC: Author.Google Scholar
  47. U.S. Department of Labor. (2012). Persons with a disability: Labor force characteristics. Washington, DC: Author.Google Scholar
  48. Wagner, M., Newman, L., Cameto, R., Javitz, H., & Valdes, K. (2012). A national picture of parent and youth participation in IEP and transition planning meetings. Journal of Disability Policy Studies, 23(3), 140–155.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Walker, A. R., & Test, D. W. (2011). Using a self-advocacy intervention on African American college students’ ability to request academic accommodations. Learning Disabilities Research & Practice, 26(3), 134–144.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Wilkins, J., & Huckabee, S. (2014). A literature map of dropout prevention interventions for students with disabilities. Clemson, SC: National Dropout Prevention Center for Students with Disabilities, Clemson University.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Sense Publishers 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Paul C. Harris
    • 1
  • Renae D. Mayes
    • 2
  • Desireé Vega
    • 3
  • Erik M. Hines
    • 4
  1. 1.University of VirginiaUSA
  2. 2.Ball State UniversityUSA
  3. 3.Texas State UniversityUSA
  4. 4.University of ConnecticutUSA

Personalised recommendations