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Shadow Education

The Rise and Implications of Private Supplementary Tutoring
Chapter
Part of the Spotlight on China book series (SPOT)

Abstract

Private supplementary tutoring beyond the hours of formal schooling is widely known as shadow education (e.g., Bray, 1999, 2009; Buchmann et al., 2010; Stevenson & Baker, 1992). It only exists because of the existence of mainstream education. Much of the curriculum in the shadow mimics the curriculum in the schools, and the shadow sector grows as the school sector grows.

Keywords

School Leader Compulsory Education Private Tutoring Supplementary Education Shadow Education 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Copyright information

© Sense Publishers 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Faculty of EducationThe University of Hong KongHong Kong
  2. 2.Faculty of EducationThe University of Hong KongHong Kong

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