Human infections are known in 3 amphistome species, namely, Fischoederius elongatus (Gastrothylacidae), Gastrodiscoides hominis, and Watsonius watsoni (Gastrodiscidae). Human infection with F. elongatus is very rare, with only one patient from China. It is presumed that the patient may have consumed aquatic plants having the metacercariae. The geographical distribution extends from Indonesia to India, Sri Lanka, England, China, Japan, Thailand, Vietnam, Taiwan, and Russia. Human infections with G. hominis are not uncommon in India, Vietnam, the Philippines, Thailand, Myanmar, China, Kazakhstan, Russia, Indian migrants in Guyana, and Nigeria due to ingestion of the metacercariae encysted on the surface of aquatic plants, live or dead crayfish, tadpoles and frogs, squid, or molluscs. Human infection with W. watsoni is very rare, with only 1 confirmed and 3 suspected cases. It is presumed that the human cases may have consumed metacercariae-containing vegetations. Its geographical distribution is limited in Africa (Nigeria, Zambia, and Senegal) and Asia (only Vietnam).


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Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Tropical Medicine and ParasitologySeoul National University College of MedicineSeoulSouth Korea
  2. 2.Institute of Parasitic Diseases, Korea Association of Health PromotionSeoulSouth Korea

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