Defining Natural Hazards – Medium and Small Scale Hazards

  • Nirupama Agrawal
Part of the Advances in Natural and Technological Hazards Research book series (NTHR, volume 49)


Hazards are defined as medium or small scale hazards, based on their size and impact. In this chapter, the medium scale hazards examined in alphabetical order are erosion, landslides, snowstorms/blizzards, subsidence and sinkholes, tornados and windstorms. Small scale hazards include extraterrestrial hazards, fog, geomagnetic storms, hailstorms, and lightning. The chapter also highlights examples of recent hazards in North America and around the world.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V., part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Nirupama Agrawal
    • 1
  1. 1.York UniversityTorontoCanada

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