Angiofollicular lymph node hyperplasia, also known as giant lymph node hyperplasia or Castleman’s disease (CD), is a chronic lymphoproliferative disorder. It was firstly reported and named by Castleman and Towne (1954), which is one of unexplained reactive lymphadenopathy characterized by painless enlargement of giant lymph nodes. Vascular follicular lymph node hyperplasia is rarely seen with an unclear incidence. It can occur at any age, more common in people aged 10–45 years. There is no significant difference in incidence between men and women. Medical history of the patients may range from several months to decades. Castleman’s disease is mainly manifested as enlargement of lymph nodes in any part of the body, most commonly seen in mediastinal lymph nodes (70%) and spreading along the bronchial and tracheobronchial tree or hilar lymph node to the neck, shoulders, armpits, groin, and vulva (20%), while rarely arises from the retroperitoneum or mesentery (7%), demonstrating an extremely low incidence of retroperitoneal Castleman’s disease.
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