The Return of Political Theology: The Scarf Affair in Comparative Constitutional Perspective in France, Germany and Turkey

Part of the Boston Studies in Philosophy, Religion and Public Life book series (BSPR, volume 6)


The contemporary world is caught in the throes of religious and cultural conflicts which destabilize what seemed like accepted walls of separation between the state and religion, the public sphere of politics and law and the private realm of faith and belief. This article examines the destabilization of these dualisms by focusing on the constitutional and political controversies around the wearing of the “hijab,” religiously mandated clothing by Muslim women, in France, Germany and Turkey.


  1. Agamben G (2005) State of exception (trans: Attell K). University of Chicago Press, ChicagoGoogle Scholar
  2. Bali R (1999) Cumhuriyet Yillarinda Turkiye Yahudileri: Bir Turklestirme Turklestirme Sureci [Turkish Jews in the Epoch of the Republic: an adventure in Turkification (1923–1945)]. Iletisim, IstanbulGoogle Scholar
  3. Benhabib S (2002) The claims of culture: equality and difference in the global era. Princeton University Press, Princeton/LondonGoogle Scholar
  4. Benhabib S (2004) The rights of others: aliens, citizens and residents. Cambridge University Press, New York/LondonCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Benhabib S (2006) Another cosmopolitanism, with Jeremy Waldron, Bonnie Honig and Will Kymlicka, the Berkeley Tanner lectures. Post R (ed.). Oxford University Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  6. Benhabib S (2007) Democratic exclusions and democratic iterations: dilemmas of “Just Membership” and prospects of cosmopolitan federalism. Eur J Polit Theory 6(4):395–463CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Benhabib S (2009) Claiming rights across borders: international human rights and democratic sovereignty. Am Polit Sci Rev 103(4):691–704CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Benhabib S (2016) Introduction. In: Benhabib S, Kaul V (eds) Toward new democratic imaginaries – Istanbul seminars on Islam, culture and Politics. Springer, Cham, pp xxix–xlviiiGoogle Scholar
  9. Blumenberg H (1983) The legitimacy of the modern age (trans: Wallace RM). MIT Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  10. Buruma I (2006) Murder in Amsterdam: the death of Theo van Gogh and the limits of tolerance. Penguin, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  11. Choudhury N (2007) From the Stasi Commission to the European Court of Human Rights: L’Affaire du Foulard and the challenge of protecting the rights of Muslim girls. Columbia J Gender Law 16(1):205Google Scholar
  12. de Vries H (2006) Introduction: before, around, and beyond the theologico- political. In: de Vries H, Sullivan LE (eds) Political theologies: public religions in a post-secular world. Fordham University Press, New YorkCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Emcke C (2000) Kollektive Identitaten. Sozial- philosophische Grundlagen. Campus Verlag, Frankfurt/New YorkGoogle Scholar
  14. Gaspard F, Khosrokhavar F (1995) Le Foulard et la République. Decouverte, ParisCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Gole N (1996) The forbidden modern: civilization and veiling. University of Michigan Press, Ann ArborGoogle Scholar
  16. Habermas J (2008) Notes on a postsecular society. Available at: Accessed 20 June 2008
  17. Joas H (2004) Braucht der Mensch Religion? Über Erfahrungen der Selbst- transzendenz. Herder, Freiburg im BreisgauGoogle Scholar
  18. Joppke C (2009) Veil: mirror of identity. Polity Press, LondonGoogle Scholar
  19. Kanra B (2009) Islam, democracy and dialogue in Turkey: deliberating in divided societies. Ashgate, Farnham (Surrey)Google Scholar
  20. Kirchheimer O (1996) Remarks on Carl Schmitt’s legality and legitimacy. In: Scheuerman W (ed) The rules of law under Siege: selected essays of Franz L. Neumann and Otto Kirchheimer. University of California Press, Berkeley, pp 64–98Google Scholar
  21. Klausen J (2009) The cartoons that shook the world. Yale University Press, New HavenGoogle Scholar
  22. Koskenniemi M (2002) The gentle civilizer of nations: the rise and fall of international law 1870–1960. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 413–440Google Scholar
  23. Lévi A, Lévi L (2004) Des Filles comme les Autres. Interviews by Véronique Giraud and Yves Sintomer. La Decouverte, ParisGoogle Scholar
  24. Löwith K (1949) Meaning in history: the theological implications of the philosophy of history. University of Chicago Press, ChicagoGoogle Scholar
  25. Meier H (1998) Carl Schmitt, Leo Strauss und ‘Der Begriff des Politischen. J. B. Metzler Verlag, StuttgartGoogle Scholar
  26. Mouffe C (1999) The challenge of Carl Schmitt. Verso, LondonGoogle Scholar
  27. Mouffe C, Laclau E (1986) Hegemony and social strategy: towards a radical demo- cratic politics. Verso, LondonGoogle Scholar
  28. Roy O (2007) Secularism confronts Islam. Columbia University Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  29. Scheuerman W (2007) Carl Schmitt and Hans Morgenthau: realism and beyond. In: Williams MC (ed) Realism reconsidered: the legacy of Hans. J. Morgenthau in international relations. Oxford University Press, Oxford, pp 62–92Google Scholar
  30. Schmitt C (1985) Political theology: four chapters on the concept of sovereignty (trans: Schwab G). University of Chicago Press, ChicagoGoogle Scholar
  31. Schmitt C (1988) Crisis of parliamentary democracy (trans: Kennedy E). MIT Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  32. Schmitt C (2007) The concept of the political (trans: Schwab G). University of Chicago Press, ChicagoGoogle Scholar
  33. Scott JW (2009) The politics of the veil. Princeton University Press, PrincetonGoogle Scholar
  34. Strauss L (2007) Notes on Carl Schmitt, The concept of the political. In: Schmitt, The concept of the political (trans: Schwab G). University of Chicago Press, Chicago, pp. 81–109Google Scholar
  35. Weber M (1946) Wissenschaft als Beruf (1919), translated as Science as a vocation. In: Gerth HH and Mills CW (eds and trans) From Max Weber: essays in sociology. Oxford University Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Yale UniversityNew HavenUSA

Personalised recommendations