Advertisement

CMOS Image Sensor for Smart Cameras

Chapter
  • 1.7k Downloads
Part of the KAIST Research Series book series (KAISTRS)

Abstract

A smart camera is a vision system with special features implemented to achieve its specific purpose. A smart camera which can be used for security or surveillance purpose requires high dynamic range of the sensor to cover broad illumination range of the scene. A stick- or badge-type smart camera operates as a stand-alone device so that the power consumption is one of the most important parameters. For applications such as nondestructive inspection using infrared (IR), sensitivity of the image sensors should be improved to obtain suitable SNR for reliable output. This chapter describes basic imaging principles and dynamic range expansion methods of the CMOS image sensors.

Keywords

CMOS image sensor (CIS) Charge coupled device (CCD) Active pixel sensor (APS) Wide dynamic range (WDR) Correlated double sampling (CDS) 

Notes

Acknowledgments

This work was supported by the Center for Integrated Smart Sensors funded by the Ministry of Science, ICT & Future Planning as Global Frontier Project. (CISS-3-4)

References

  1. 1.
    Hynecek J (2002) High dynamic range active pixel CMOS image sensor and data processing system incorporating adaptive pixel reset, U.S. Patent, 0113886 A1Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Meynants G, Dierickx B, Scheffer D (1998) CMOS active pixel image sensor with CCD performance. Proc SPIE 3410:68–76CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Mendis SK, Kemeny SE, Gee RC, Pain B, Staller CO, Kim Q, Fossum ER (1997) CMOS Active pixel image sensors for highly integrated imaging systems. IEEE J Solid-State Circuits 32(2):187–197CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Yasuda T, Hamamoto T, Aizawa K (2003) Adaptive-integration-time image sensor with real-time reconstruction function. IEEE Trans Electron Devices 50(1):111–120CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Theuwissen AJP (1995) Solid-State Imaging with Charge-Coupled Devices. Kluwer Academic Publishers, DordrechtGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Hardy T, Murowinski R, Deen MJ (1998) Charge transfer efficiency in proton damaged CCD’s. IEEE Trans Nuclear Sci 45(2):154–163CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Yonemoto K, Sumi H (2000) A CMOS image sensor with a simple fixed-pattern-noise-reduction technology and a hole accumulation diode. IEEE J Solid-State Circuits 35(12):2038–2043CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Hynecek J (2002) CDS noise reduction of partially reset charge-detection nodes. IEEE Trans Circuits Syst 49(3):276–280CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Tian H, Gamal AE (2001) Analysis of 1/f noise in switched MOSFET circuits. IEEE Trans Circuits Syst 48(2):151–157CrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Kawai N, Kawahito S (2004) Noise Analysis of high-gain, low-noise column readout circuits for CMOS image sensors. IEEE Trans Electron Devices 51(2):185–194CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Furumiya M, Ohkubo H, Muramatsu Y, Kurosawa S, Okamoto F, Fujimoto Y, Nakashiba Y (2001) High-sensitivity and no-crosstalk pixel technology for embedded CMOS image sensor. IEEE Trans Electron Devices 48(10):2221–2227CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Tian H, Fowler B, Gamal AE (1999) Analysis of temporal noise in CMOS APS. Proceedings of SPIE, vol 3649. San Jose, pp 177–185Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Tian H, Fowler B, Gamal AE (2001) Analysis of temporal noise in CMOS photodiode active pixel sensor. IEEE J Solid-State Circuits 36(1):92–101CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Rodericks B, Hoffberg M (2002) Wide dynamic range digital imaging system and method. PCT Patent, WO 02/103391 A1Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Kavadias S, Dierickx B, Scheffer D, Alaerts A, Uwaerts D, Bogaerts J (2000) A logarithmic response CMOS image sensor with on-chip calibration. IEEE J Solid-State Circuits 35(8):1146–1152CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Takanayagi I (2006) Wide dynamic range linear-and-log active pixel. U.S. Patent, 0036785Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Hara K, Kubo H, Kimura M, Murao F, Komon S (2005) A Linear-logarithmic cmos sensor with offset calibration using an injected charge signal. In: Proceedings of ISSCC, pp 354--603Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Decker S, McGrath RD, Brehmer K, Sodini CG (1998) A 256 × 256 CMOS Imaging array with wide dynamic range pixels and column-parallel digital output. IEEE J Solid-State Circuits 33:2081–2091CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Sugawa S, Akahane N, Adachi S, Mori K, Ishiuchi T, Mizobuchi K (2005) A 100 dB dynamic range CMOS Image sensor using a lateral overflow integration capacitor. In: Proceedings of ISSCC, pp 352--353Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Yadid-Pecht O, Fossum ER (1997) Wide intrascene dynamic range CMOS APS using dual sampling. IEEE Trans Electron Devices 44(10):1721–1723CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Nakamura J (2002) Wide dynamic range pinned photodiode active pixel sensor (APS), U.S. Patent, 0096124 A1Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Mase M, Kawahito S, Sasaki M, Wakamori Y, Furuta M (2005) A Wide dynamic range CMOS image sensor with multiple exposure-time signal outputs and 12-bit column-parallel cyclic A/D converters. IEEE J Solid-State Circuits 40(12):2787–2795CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Park JH, Mase M, Kawahito S, Sasaki M, Wakamori Y, Ohta Y (2005) A 142 dB dynamic range CMOS image sensor with multiple exposure time signals. In: Proceedings of ASSCC, Taiwan, vol A2L-3, pp 85–88Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Center for Integrated Smart Sensor, ITC Building (N1), KAISTDeajeonRepublic of Korea

Personalised recommendations