Sexual Harassment: Undermining the Wellbeing of Working Women

  • Kathryn J. HollandEmail author
  • Lilia M. Cortina
Part of the International Handbooks of Quality-of-Life book series (IHQL)


The past two decades have witnessed incredible strides in the understanding of workplace harassment based on sex and gender (a.k.a. “sexual harassment”). This chapter reviews sexual harassment definitions, laws, antecedents, and outcomes, focusing on the most recent and rigorous studies. We structure this chapter to answer the following questions: How is sexual harassment defined, legally and scientifically, both in the United States and in other nations? What is its prevalence and impact in the lives of working women? Finally, how do different features of context (e.g., power, organizational culture, policies, procedures, trainings) promote, prevent, and remedy harassment based on sex and gender?


Sexual harassment Gender harassment Workplace Organizations Employment law Wellbeing Working women 


  1. Acker, J. (1990). Hierarchies, jobs, bodies: A theory of gendered organizations. Gender and Society, 4, 139–158.Google Scholar
  2. Adams-Roy, J., & Barling, J. (1998). Predicting the decision to confront or report sexual harassment. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 19, 329–336.Google Scholar
  3. Antecol, H., & Cobb-Clark, D. (2003). Does sexual harassment training change attitudes? A view from the federal level. Social Science Quarterly, 84, 826–842.Google Scholar
  4. Baer, S. (2004). Dignity or equality? Responses to workplace harassment in European, German, and U.S. law. In C. A. MacKinnon & R. B. Siegel (Eds.), Directions in sexual harassment law (pp. 582–601). New Haven: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  5. Barak, A. (1997). Cross-cultural perspectives on sexual harassment. In W. O’Donohue (Ed.), Sexual harassment: Theory, research, and treatment (pp. 263–300). Needham Heights: Allyn & Bacon.Google Scholar
  6. Barling, J., Dekker, I., Loughlin, C., Kelloway, E., Fullagar, C., & Johnson, D. (1996). Prediction and replication of the organizational and personal consequences of workplace sexual harassment. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 11, 4–25.Google Scholar
  7. Barling, J., Roger, A., & Kelloway, E. (2001). Behind closed doors: In-home workers’ experience of sexual harassment and workplace violence. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 6, 255–269.Google Scholar
  8. Barrett, K. (2004). Women in the workplace: Sexual discrimination in Japan. Human Rights Brief, 11, 5. Retrieved from
  9. Benson, K. A. (1984). Comment on Crocker’s “an analysis of university definitions of sexual harassment”. Signs, 9, 516–519.Google Scholar
  10. Berdahl, J. L. (2003). The dark side of gender and the lighter side of sex: Exploring uncharted waters in sexual harassment research. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Academy of Management, Seattle, WA.Google Scholar
  11. Berdahl, J. (2007a). Harassment based on sex: Protecting social status in the context of gender hierarchy. The Academy of Management Review, 32, 641–658.Google Scholar
  12. Berdahl, J. L. (2007b). The sexual harassment of uppity women. Journal of Applied Psychology, 92, 425–437.Google Scholar
  13. Berdahl, J. L., & Aquino, K. (2009). Sexual behavior at work: Fun or folly? Journal of Applied Psychology, 94, 34–47.Google Scholar
  14. Berdahl, J. L., & Raver, J. (2011). Sexual harassment. In S. Zedeck (Ed.), Handbook of industrial/organizational psychology (pp. 641–669). Washington, DC: APA.Google Scholar
  15. Berdahl, J. L., Magley, V. J., & Waldo, C. R. (1996). The sexual harassment of men: Exploring the concept with theory and data. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 20, 527–541.Google Scholar
  16. Bergman, M. E., & Drasgow, F. (2003). Race as a moderator in a model of sexual harassment: An empirical test. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 8, 131–145.Google Scholar
  17. Bergman, M., Langhout, R., Palmieri, P., Cortina, L., & Fitzgerald, L. (2002). The (un)reasonableness of reporting: Antecedents and consequences of reporting sexual harassment. Journal of Applied Psychology, 87, 230–242.Google Scholar
  18. Bingham, S. G., & Scherer, L. L. (2001). The unexpected effects of a sexual harassment educational program. The Journal of Applied Behavioral Science, 37, 125–153.Google Scholar
  19. Bond, M. A., Punnett, L., Pyle, J. L., Cazeca, D., & Cooperman, M. (2004). Gendered work conditions, health, and work outcomes. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 9, 28–45.Google Scholar
  20. Bowes-Sperry, L., & O’Leary-Kelly, A. (2005). To act or not to act: The dilemma faced by sexual harassment observers. Academy of Management Review, 30, 288–306.Google Scholar
  21. Brooks, L., & Perot, A. R. (1991). Reporting sexual harassment: Exploring a predictive model. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 15, 31–47.Google Scholar
  22. Buchanan, N. T., & Ormerod, A. J. (2002). Racialized sexual harassment in the lives of Black women. Women and Therapy, 25, 107–124.Google Scholar
  23. Buchanan, N. T., Settles, I. H., & Woods, K. C. (2008). Comparing sexual harassment subtypes among black and white women by military rank: Double jeopardy, the jezebel, and the cult of true womanhood. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 32, 347–361.Google Scholar
  24. Buchanan, N. T., Bluestein, B. M., Nappa, A. C., Woods, K. C., & Depatie, M. M. (2013). Exploring gender differences in body image, eating pathology, and sexual harassment. Body Image, 10, 352–360.Google Scholar
  25. Bundy v. Jackson, 641 F.2d 934 (D.C. Cir. 1981).Google Scholar
  26. Burlington Industries vs. Ellereth, 97-569, Supreme Court of the United States, 524 U.S. 742.Google Scholar
  27. Bursick, K., & Gefter, J. (2011). Still stable after all these years: Perceptions of sexual harassment in academic contexts. The Journal of Social Psychology, 151, 331–349.Google Scholar
  28. Çelik, Y., & Çelik, S. (2007). Sexual harassment against nurses in Turkey. Journal of Nursing Scholarship, 39, 200–206.Google Scholar
  29. Chan, D., Tang, C., & Chan, W. (1999). Sexual harassment: A preliminary analysis of its effects on Hong Kong Chinese women in the workplace and academia. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 23, 661–672.Google Scholar
  30. Chan, D., Lam, C., Chow, S., & Cheung, S. (2008). Examining the job-related, psychological, and physical outcomes of workplace sexual harassment: A meta-analytic review. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 32, 362–376.Google Scholar
  31. Cho, S. K. (1997). Converging stereotypes in racialized sexual harassment: Where the model minority myth meets suzie wong. Gender, Race, and Justice, 1997–1998, 177–212.Google Scholar
  32. Chotalia, S. P. (2005). Sexual harassment laws in Canada. International Journal of Discrimination and the Law, 7, 199–227.Google Scholar
  33. Chrisler, J., & Clapp, S. K. (2008). When the boss is a woman. In M. A. Paludi (Ed.), The psychology of women at work (pp. 39–67). Westport: Praeger Publishers.Google Scholar
  34. Cikara, M., & Fiske, S. T. (2009). Warmth, competence, and ambivalent sexism: Vertical assault and collateral damage. In M. Barreto, M. K. Ryan, & M. T. Schmitt (Eds.), The glass ceiling in the 21st century: Understanding barriers to gender equality (pp. 73–96). Washington, DC: APA Books.Google Scholar
  35. Cleveland, J. N., & Kerst, M. E. (1993). Sexual harassment and perceptions of power: An under- articulated relationship. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 42, 49–67.Google Scholar
  36. Cochran, C., Fraizier, P., & Olsen, A. (1997). Predictors of responses to unwanted sexual attention. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 21, 207–226.Google Scholar
  37. Cole, E. R. (2009). Intersectionality and research in psychology. American Psychologist, 64, 170–180.Google Scholar
  38. Collinsworth, L. L., Fitzgerald, L. F., & Drasgow, F. (2009). In harm’s way: Factors related to psychological distress following sexual harassment. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 33, 475–490.Google Scholar
  39. Cortina, L. M. (2001). Assessing sexual harassment among Latinas: Development of an instrument. Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology, 7, 164–181.Google Scholar
  40. Cortina, L. M. (2004). Hispanic perspectives on sexual harassment and social support. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 30, 570–584.Google Scholar
  41. Cortina, L. M. (2008). Unseen injustice: Incivility as modern discrimination in organizations. Academy of Management Review, 33, 55–75.Google Scholar
  42. Cortina, L. M., & Berdahl, J. L. (2008). Sexual harassment in organizations: A decade of research in review. In J. Barling & C. L. Cooper (Eds.), Handbook of organizational behavior: Micro approaches (Vol. 1, pp. 469–497). Thousand Oaks: Sage.Google Scholar
  43. Cortina, L. M., & Magley, V. (2003). Raising voice, risking retaliation: Events following interpersonal mistreatment in the workplace. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 8, 247–265.Google Scholar
  44. Cortina, L. M., Fitzgerald, L. F., & Drasgow, F. (2002). Contextualizing Latina experiences of sexual harassment: Preliminary tests of a structural model. Basic and Applied Social Psychology, 24, 295–311.Google Scholar
  45. Crenshaw, K. (1989). Demarginalizing the intersection of race and sex: A black feminist critique of antidiscrimination doctrine, feminist theory, and antiracist politics. University of Chicago Legal Forum. Retrieved from
  46. Dall’Ara, E., & Maass, A. (1999). Studying sexual harassment in the laboratory: Are egalitarian women at higher risk? Sex Roles, 41, 681–704.Google Scholar
  47. Dansky, B. S., & Kilpatrick, D. G. (1997). Effects of sexual harassment. In W. O’Donohue (Ed.), Sexual harassment: Theory, research, and treatment (pp. 152–174). Needham Heights: Allyn & Bacon.Google Scholar
  48. de Haas, S., Timmerman, G., & Höing, M. (2009). Sexual harassment and health among male and female police officers. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 14, 390–401.Google Scholar
  49. Dekker, I., & Barling, J. (1998). Personal and organizational predictors of workplace sexual harassment of woman by men. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 3, 7–18.Google Scholar
  50. DeSouza, E. R. (2011). Frequency rates and correlates of contrapower harassment in higher education. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 26, 158–188.Google Scholar
  51. DeSouza, E. R., & Fansler, A. G. (2003). Contrapower sexual harassment: A survey of students and faculty members. Sex Roles, 48, 529–542.Google Scholar
  52. Dionisi, A. M., Barling, J., & Dupre, K. E. (2012). Revisiting the comparative outcomes of workplace aggression and sexual harassment. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 17, 398–408.Google Scholar
  53. Eagly, A. H., & Sczesny, S. (2009). Stereotypes about women, men, and leaders: Have times changed? In M. Barreto, M. K. Ryan, & M. T. Schmitt (Eds.), The glass ceiling in the 21st century: Understanding barriers to gender equality (pp. 21–47). Washington, DC: APA Books.Google Scholar
  54. Ellis, S., Barak, A., & Pinto, A. (1991). Moderating effects of personal cognitions on experienced and perceived sexual harassment of women at the workplace. Journal of Applied Psychology, 21, 1320–1337.Google Scholar
  55. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission. (1980). Guidelines on discrimination because of sex (Sect. 1604.11). Federal Register, 45, 74676–74677.Google Scholar
  56. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission. (1999). Employment guidance: Vicarious employment liability for unlawful harassment by supervisors.
  57. Estrada, A. X., & Berggren, A. W. (2009). Sexual harassment and its impact for women officers and cadets in the Swedish armed forces. Military Psychology, 21, 162–185.Google Scholar
  58. Faragher vs. City of Boca Raton, 97-282, Supreme Court of the United States, 524 U.S. 775.Google Scholar
  59. Farley, L. (1978). Sexual shakedown: The sexual harassment of women on the job. New York: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  60. Firestone, J. M., & Harris, R. J. (1994). Sexual harassment in the U.S. military: Individualized and environmental contexts. Armed Forces & Society, 21, 25–43.Google Scholar
  61. Fitzgerald, L. F., Shullman, S. L., Bailey, N., Richards, M., Swecker, J., Gold, A., Ormerod, A. J., & Weitzman, L. (1988). The incidence and dimensions of sexual harassment in academia and the workplace. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 32, 152–175.Google Scholar
  62. Fitzgerald, L. F., Gelfand, M., & Drasgow, F. (1995a). Measuring sexual harassment: Theoretical and psychometric advances. Basic and Applied Social Psychology, 17, 425–445.Google Scholar
  63. Fitzgerald, L., Swan, S., & Fisher, K. (1995b). Why didn’t she just report him? The psychological and legal implications of women’s responses to sexual harassment. Journalof Social Issues, 51, 117–138.Google Scholar
  64. Fitzgerald, L. F., Drasgow, F., Hulin, C. L., Gelfand, M. J., & Magley, V. J. (1997). Antecedents and consequences of sexual harassment in organizations: A test of an integrated model. Journal of Applied Psychology, 82, 578–589.Google Scholar
  65. Franke, K. M. (1997). What’s wrong with sexual harassment? Stanford Law Review, 49, 691–772.Google Scholar
  66. Gelfand, M., Fitzgerald, L., & Drasgow, F. (1995). The structure of sexual harassment: A confirmatory analysis across cultures and settings. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 47, 164–177.Google Scholar
  67. Gettman, H. J., & Gelfand, M. J. (2007). When the customer shouldn’t be king: Antecedents and consequences of sexual harassment by clients and customers. Journal of Applied Psychology, 92, 757–770.Google Scholar
  68. Gill, R., & Febbraro, A. R. (2013). Experiences and perceptions of sexual harassment in the Canadian forces combat arms. Violence Against Women, 19, 269–287.Google Scholar
  69. Glomb, T. M., Richman, W. L., Hulin, C. L., Drasgow, F., Schneider, K. T., & Fitzgerald, L. F. (1997). Ambient sexual harassment: An integrated model of antecedents and consequences. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 71, 309–328.Google Scholar
  70. Grauerholz, E. (1989). Sexual harassment of women professors by students: Exploring the dynamics of power, authority, and gender in a university setting. Sex Roles, 21, 789–801.Google Scholar
  71. Gruber, J. E. (1998). The impact of male work environments and organizational policies on women’s experiences of sexual harassment. Gender and Society, 12, 301–320.Google Scholar
  72. Gutek, B. A. (1985). Sex and the workplace: The impact of sexual behavior and harassment of women, men and organizations. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  73. Gutek, B. A. (1997). Sexual harassment policy initiatives. In W. O’Donohue (Ed.), Sexual harassment: Theory, research, and treatment (pp. 185–198). Needham Heights: Allyn & Bacon.Google Scholar
  74. Gutek, B. A., Choen, A. G., & Konrad, A. M. (1990). Predicting social-sexual behavior at work: A contact hypothesis. The Academy of Management Journal, 33, 560–577.Google Scholar
  75. Harned, M. S. (2000). An examination of the relationships among women’s experiences of sexual harassment, body image, and eating disturbances. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 24, 336–348.Google Scholar
  76. Harned, M. S., & Fitzgerald, L. F. (2002). Understanding a link between sexual harassment and eating disorder symptoms: A mediational analysis. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 70, 1170–1181.Google Scholar
  77. Harned, M. S., Ormerod, A. J., Palmieri, P. A., Collinsworth, L. L., & Reed, M. (2002). Sexual assault and other types of sexual harassment by workplace personnel: A comparison of antecedents and consequences. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 7, 174–188.Google Scholar
  78. Hershcovis, M. S., Parker, S. K., & Reich, T. C. (2010). The moderating effect of equal opportunity support and confidence in grievance procedures on sexual harassment from different perpetrators. Journal of Business Ethics, 92, 415–432.Google Scholar
  79. Hitlan, R. T., Pryor, J. B., Hesson-McInnis, M. S., & Olson, M. (2009). Antecedents of gender harassment: An analysis of person and situation factors. Sex Roles, 61, 794–807.Google Scholar
  80. Holland, K. J., & Cortina, L. M. (2013). When sexism and feminism collide: The sexual harassment of feminist working women. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 37, 192–208.Google Scholar
  81. Ilies, R., Hauserman, N., Schwochau, S., & Stibal, J. (2003). Reported incidence rates of work- related sexual harassment in the United States: Using a meta-analysis to explain reported rate disparities. Personnel Psychology, 56, 607–631.Google Scholar
  82. Irish Presidency of the European Union. (2004). Report on sexual harassment in the workplace in EU member states. Retrieved from Country/SexualHarassmentReport.pdf
  83. Janzen v.Platy Enterprises Ltd. (1989). 1 SCR 1252.Google Scholar
  84. Juliano, A. C. (2007). Harassing women with power: The case for including contra-power harassment within Title VII. Boston University Law Review, 87, 491–560.Google Scholar
  85. Kamir, O. (2004). Dignity, respect, and equality in Israel’s sexual harassment law. In C. A. MacKinnon & R. B. Siegel (Eds.), Directions in sexual harassment law (pp. 561–581). New Haven: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  86. Knapp, D., Faley, R., Ekenberg, S., & Dubois, C. (1997). Determinants of target responses to sexual harassment: A conceptual framework. Academy of Management Review, 22, 687–729.Google Scholar
  87. Konik, J., & Cortina, L. M. (2008). Policing gender at work: Intersections of harassment based on sex and sexuality. Social Justice Research, 21, 313–337.Google Scholar
  88. Lampman, C., Phelps, A., Bancroft, S., & Beneke, M. (2009). Contrapower harassment in academia: A survey of faculty experience in student incivility, bullying and sexual attention. Sex Roles, 60, 331–346.Google Scholar
  89. Langhout, R., Bergman, M. E., Cortina, L. M., Fitzgerald, L. F., Drasgow, F., & Williams, J. (2005). Sexual harassment severity: Assessing situational and personal determinants and outcomes. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 35, 975–1007.Google Scholar
  90. Larsen, S. E., & Fitzgerald, L. F. (2011). PTSD symptoms and sexual harassment: The role of attributions and perceived control. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 26, 2555–2567.Google Scholar
  91. Lee, W., & Ormerod, A. (2003, August). “Constructing” the SEQ: A multiple-group analysis across samples and versions of the SEQ. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Psychological Association, Toronto, Canada.Google Scholar
  92. Lee, J., Heilmann, S., & Near, J. (2004). Blowing the whistle on sexual harassment: Test of a model of predictors and outcomes. Human Relations, 57, 297–322.Google Scholar
  93. Leskinen, E. A., Cortina, L. M., & Kabat, D. B. (2011). Gender harassment: Broadening our understanding of sex-based harassment at work. Law and Human Behavior, 35, 25–39.Google Scholar
  94. Levy, A. C., & Pauldi, M. A. (1997). Workplace sexual harassment. Edgewood Cliffs: Prentice Hall.Google Scholar
  95. Lim, S., & Cortina, L. M. (2005). Interpersonal mistreatment in the workplace: The interface and impact of general incivility and sexual harassment. Journal of Applied Psychology, 90, 483–496.Google Scholar
  96. Lonsway, K. A., Cortina, L. M., & Magley, V. J. (2008). Sexual harassment mythology: Definition, conceptualization, and measurement. Sex Roles, 58, 599–615.Google Scholar
  97. Lonsway, K. A., Paynich, R., & Hall, J. N. (2013). Sexual harassment in law enforcement: Incidence, impact and perception. Police Quarterly. doi: 10.1177/1098611113475630.Google Scholar
  98. Luthar, V. K., & Luthar, H. K. (2002). Using Hofstede’s cultural dimensions to explain sexually harassing behaviors in an international context. International Journal of Human Resource Management, 13, 268–284.Google Scholar
  99. Luthar, H. K., & Luthar, V. K. (2008). Likelihood to sexually harass: A comparison among American, Indian, and Chinese students. International Journal of Cross Cultural Management, 8, 59–76.Google Scholar
  100. Maas, A., & Cadinu, M. R. (2006). Protecting a threatened identity through sexual harassment: A social identity interpretation. In R. Brown & D. Capozza (Eds.), Social identities: Motivational, emotional, and cultural influences (pp. 109–131). Hove: Psychology.Google Scholar
  101. Maass, A., Cadinu, M., Guarnieri, G., & Grasselli, A. (2003). Sexual harassment under social identity threat: The computer harassment paradigm. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 85, 853–870.Google Scholar
  102. MacKinnon, C. A. (1979). Sexual harassment of working women. New Haven: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  103. Magley, V. J., & Shupe, E. I. (2005). Self-labeling sexual harassment. Sex Roles, 53, 173–189.Google Scholar
  104. Magley, V., Hulin, C., Fitzgerald, L., & DeNardo, M. (1999). Outcomes of self-labeling sexual harassment. Journal of Applied Psychology, 84, 390–402.Google Scholar
  105. Magley, V., Grossman, J., & Kath, L. (2004). First steps first: Understanding what are employers doing about sexual harassment? Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Academy of Management, New Orleans, LA.Google Scholar
  106. Magley, V. J., Cortina, L. M., & Kath, L. (2005, August). Stress, withdrawal, and gender in the context of sexual harassment: A longitudinal analysis. In Annual meeting of the American Psychological Association, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  107. Magley, V. J., Fitzgerald, L. F., Salisbury, J., Drasgow, F., & Zickar, M. J. (2013). Changing sexual harassment within organizations via training interventions: Suggestions and empirical data. In R. Burke & C. Cooper (Eds.), The fulfilling workplace: The organization’s role in achieving individual and organizational health (pp. 225–246). Surrey: Gower.Google Scholar
  108. Malamut, A. B., & Offermann, L. R. (2001). Coping with sexual harassment: Personal, environmental, and cognitive determinants. Journal of Applied Psychology, 86, 1152–1166.Google Scholar
  109. Matchen, J., & DeSouza, E. (2000). The sexual harassment of faculty members by students. Sex Roles, 42, 295–306.Google Scholar
  110. McGinley, M., Richman, J. A., & Rospenda, K. M. (2011). Duration of sexual harassment and generalized harassment in the workplace over ten years: Effects on deleterious drinking outcomes. Journal of Addictive Diseases, 30, 229–242.Google Scholar
  111. McKinney, K. (1990). Sexual harassment of university faculty by colleagues and students. Sex Roles, 23, 421–438.Google Scholar
  112. McKinney, K. (1992). Contrapower sexual harassment: The effects of student sex and type of behavior on faculty perceptions. Sex Roles, 27, 627–643.Google Scholar
  113. McLaughlin, H., Uggen, C., & Blackstone, A. (2012). Sexual harassment, workplace authority, and the paradox of power. American Sociological Review, 77, 625–647.Google Scholar
  114. Merit Systems Protection Board, U. S. (1994). Sexual harassment in the federal workplace: Trends, progress, continuing challenges. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.Google Scholar
  115. Meritor Savings Bank v. Vinson, 477 U.S. 57 (1986).Google Scholar
  116. Miner-Rubino, K., & Cortina, L. M. (2007). Beyond targets: Consequences of vicarious exposure to misogyny at work. Journal of Applied Psychology, 92, 1254–1269.Google Scholar
  117. Mohipp, C., & Senn, C. Y. (2008). Graduate students’ perceptions of contrapower sexual harassment. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 23, 1258–1276.Google Scholar
  118. Morrow, P., McElroy, J., & Phillips, C. (1994). Sexual harassment behaviors and work related perceptions and attitudes. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 45, 295–309.Google Scholar
  119. Murrell, A. J. (1996). Sexual harassment and women of color: Issues, challenges, and future directions. In M. S. Stockdale (Ed.), Sexual harassment in the workplace: Perspectives, frontiers, and response strategies (pp. 51–65). Thousand Oaks: Sage.Google Scholar
  120. Nielsen, M., Bjørkelo, B., Notelaers, G., & Einarsen, S. (2010). Sexual harassment: Prevalence, outcomes, and gender differences assessed by three different estimation methods. Journal of Aggression, Maltreatment, and Trauma, 19, 252–274.Google Scholar
  121. Nussbaum, M. C. (2004). The modesty of Mrs. Bajaj: India’s problematic route to sexual harassment law. In C. A. MacKinnon & R. B. Siegel (Eds.), Directions in sexual harassment law (pp. 633–654). New Haven: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  122. O’Connell, C. E., & Korabik, K. (2000). Sexual harassment: The relationship of personal vulnerability, work context, perpetrator status, and type of harassment to outcomes. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 56, 299–329.Google Scholar
  123. Oncale V. Sundowner Offshore Services, 523 U.S. 75 (1998).Google Scholar
  124. Parker, S. K., & Griffin, M. A. (2002). What is so bad about a little name-calling? Negative consequences of gender harassment for overperformance demands and distress. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 7, 195–210.Google Scholar
  125. Perry, E., Kulik, C., & Schmidtke, J. (1998). Individual differences in the effectiveness of sexual harassment awareness training. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 28, 698–723.Google Scholar
  126. Perry, E. L., Kulik, C. T., Bustamante, J., & Golom, F. D. (2010). The impact of reason for training on the relationship between “best practices” and sexual harassment training effectiveness. Human Resource Development Quarterly, 21, 187–208.Google Scholar
  127. Phillips, S. P., & Schneider, M. S. (1993). Sexual harassment of female doctors by patients. The New England Journal of Medicine, 329, 1936–1939.Google Scholar
  128. Pryor, J. B. (1987). Sexual harassment proclivities in men. Sex Roles, 17, 269–290.Google Scholar
  129. Ragins, B. R. (2004). Sexual orientation in the workplace: The unique work and career experiences of gay, lesbian, and bisexual workers. Research in Personnel and Human Resources Management, 23, 35–120.Google Scholar
  130. Raver, J. L., & Gelfand, M. J. (2005). Beyond the individual victim: Linking sexual harassment, team process, and team performance. Academy of Management Journal, 48(3), 387–400.Google Scholar
  131. Reese, L., & Lindenberg, K. (1997). “Victimhood” and the implementation of sexual harassment policy. Review of Public Personnel Administration, 17, 37.Google Scholar
  132. Richman, J. A., Shinsako, S. A., Rospenda, K. M., Flaherty, J. A., & Freels, S. (2002). Workplace harassment/abuse and alcohol-related outcomes: The mediating role of psychological distress. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 63, 412–419.Google Scholar
  133. Riger, S. (1991). Gender dilemmas in sexual harassment policies and procedures. American Psychologist, 46, 497–505.Google Scholar
  134. Rospenda, K. M., Richman, J. A., & Nawyn, S. J. (1998). Doing power: The confluence of gender, race, and class in contrapower sexual harassment. Gender and Society, 12, 40–60.Google Scholar
  135. Rospenda, K. M., Richman, J. A., & Ehmke, J. L. Z. (2005). Is workplace harassment hazardous to your health? Journal of Business and Psychology, 20(1), 95–110.Google Scholar
  136. Rospenda, K. M., Richman, J. A., & Shannon, C. A. (2009). Prevalence and mental health correlates of harassment and discrimination in the workplace: Results from a national study. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 24, 819–843.Google Scholar
  137. Roth, L. M. (2007). Women on wallstreet: Despite diversity measures, wall street remains vulnerable to sex discrimination charges. Academy of Management Perspectives, 21, 24–35.Google Scholar
  138. Rudman, L., Borgida, E., & Robertson, B. (1995). Suffering in silence: Procedural justice versus gender socialization issues in university sexual harassment grievance procedures. Basic and Applied Social Psychology, 17, 519–541.Google Scholar
  139. Saguy, A. C. (2004). French and American lawyers define sexual harassment. In C. A. MacKinnon & R. B. Siegel (Eds.), Directions in sexual harassment law (pp. 602–617). New Haven: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  140. Schneider, M., & Phillips, S. P. (1997). A qualitative study of sexual harassment of female doctors by patients. Social Science & Medicine, 45, 669–676.Google Scholar
  141. Schneider, K., Swan, S., & Fitzgerald, L. (1997). Job-related and psychological effects of sexual harassment in the workplace: Empirical evidence from two organizations. Journal of Applied Psychology, 82(4), 401–415.Google Scholar
  142. Schneider, K. T., Tomaka, J., & Palacios, R. (2001). Women’s cognitive, affective, and physiological reactions to a male coworker’s sexist behavior. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 31, 1995–2018.Google Scholar
  143. Schultz, V. (1998). Reconceptualizing sexual harassment. Yale Law Journal, 107, 1683–1732.Google Scholar
  144. Schultz, V. (2003). The sanitized workplace. Yale Law Journal, 112, 2061–2197.Google Scholar
  145. Shaffer, M., Joplin, J., Bell, M., Lau, T., & Oguz, C. (2000). Gender discrimination and job-related outcomes: A cross-cultural comparison of women working in the United States and China. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 75, 395–427.Google Scholar
  146. Shupe, E. I., Cortina, L. M., Ramos, A., Fitzgerald, L. F., & Salisbury, J. (2002). The incidence and outcomes of sexual harassment among Hispanic and non-Hispanic White women: A comparison across levels of cultural affiliation. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 26, 298–308.Google Scholar
  147. Siebler, F., Sabelus, S., & Bohner, G. (2008). A refined computer harassment paradigm: Validation, and test of hypotheses about target characteristics. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 32, 22–35.Google Scholar
  148. Sims, C. S., Drasgow, F., & Fitzgerald, L. F. (2005). The effects of sexual harassment on turnover in the military: Time-dependent modeling. Journal of Applied Psychology, 90(6), 1141.Google Scholar
  149. Srivastava, D. K., & Gu, M. (2009). Law and policy issues on sexual harassment in China: Comparative perspectives. Oregon Review of International Law, 11, 43–70.Google Scholar
  150. Stewart, A. J., & McDermott, C. (2004). Gender in psychology. Annual Review of Psychology, 55, 519–544.Google Scholar
  151. Stokes, P., Stewart-Belle, S., & Barnes, J. (2000). The supreme court holds class on sexual harassment: How to avoid a failing grade. Employee Responsibilities and Rights Journal, 12, 79–91.Google Scholar
  152. Trotter, R., & Zacur, S. R. (2004). Corporate sexual harassment policies: Effective strategic human resource management. Journal of Business & Economics Research, 2, 63–71.Google Scholar
  153. Tsunoda, Y. (2004). Sexual harassment in Japan. In C. A. MacKinnon & R. B. Siegel (Eds.), Directions in sexual harassment law (pp. 618–632). New Haven: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  154. U.S. Merit Systems Protection Board. (1981). Sexual harassment in the federal workplace: Is it a problem? Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.Google Scholar
  155. Waldo, C. R., Berdahl, J. L., & Fitzgerald, L. F. (1998). Are men sexually harassed? If so, by whom? Law and Human Behavior, 22, 59–79.Google Scholar
  156. Wasti, S. A., & Cortina, L. M. (2002). Coping in context: Sociocultural determinants of responses to sexual harassment. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 83, 394–405.Google Scholar
  157. Wasti, S., Bergman, M. E., Glomb, T. M., & Drasgow, F. (2000). Test of the cross-cultural generalizability of a model of sexual harassment. Journal of Applied Psychology, 85, 766–778.Google Scholar
  158. Whitman, J. Q., & Friedman, G. S. (2003). The European transformation of harassment law. Yale Law School Legal Scholarship Repository Faculty Scholarship Series, 647, 241–274.Google Scholar
  159. Williams v. Saxbe, 413 F. Supp. 654 D.D.C. (1976).Google Scholar
  160. Willness, C., Steel, P., & Lee, K. (2007). A meta-analysis of the antecedents and consequences of workplace sexual harassment. Personnel Psychology, 60, 127–162.Google Scholar
  161. Woodzicka, J., & LaFrance, M. (2005). The effects of subtle sexual harassment on women’s performance in a job interview. Sex Roles, 53, 61–71.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Departments of Psychology and Women’s StudiesUniversity of MichiganAnn ArborUSA

Personalised recommendations