Advertisement

Work-Life Policies, Programs, and Practices: Helping Women, Men, and Workplaces

  • Laura SabattiniEmail author
  • Faye J. Crosby
Part of the International Handbooks of Quality-of-Life book series (IHQL)

Abstract

This chapter discusses work-life policies and programs that help employees manage work and personal demands. In recent years, as a result of the workforce growing increasingly global and diverse, research and practices on work-life dynamics have expanded from a focus on family work to a broader range of programs and benefits, including flexible working, telecommuting, and wellness resources. Yet, despite progress, most organizations have not fully caught up with workforce changes and still rely on old norms and assumptions about work and careers, and about gender. Work-life programs and policies hold the potential to support cultural change and create more inclusive workplaces that respect different life paths, career goals and working styles.

Keywords

Gender Women Workforce Organizational change Parental leave Flexible working Work-life Work-family 

References

  1. Barnett, R. (1999). A new work-life model for the twenty-first century. Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 562(1), 143–158.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Barnett, R. C., & Hyde, J. S. (2001). Women, men, work, and family: An expansionist theory. American Psychologist, 56(10), 781–796.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Belkin, L. (2003, October 26). The opt-out revolution. New York Times Magazine. Retrieved September 1, 2013, from http://www.nytimes.com/2003/10/26/magazine/26WOMEN.html
  4. Beninger, A., & Carter, N. M. (2013). The great debate: Flexibility vs. face time—Busting the myths behind flexible work arrangements. New York: Catalyst.Google Scholar
  5. Bernard, T. S. (2013, February 22). In paid family leave, U.S. trails most of the globe. The New York Times. Retrieved on September 15, 2013, from http://www.nytimes.com/2013/02/23/your-money/us-trails-much-of-the-world-in-providing-paid-family-leave.html?pagewanted=all&_r=0
  6. Bianchi, S., & Milkie, M. (2010). Work and family research in the first decade of the 21st century. Journal of Marriage and Family, 72(3), 705–725.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Blair-Loy, M., Wharton, A. S., & Goodstein, J. (2011). Exploring the relationship between mission statements and work–life practices in organizations. Organization Studies, 32(3), 427–450.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bond, J. T., & Galinski, E. (2011). Workplace flexibility and low wage employees. New York: Families and Work Institute.Google Scholar
  9. Boushey, H., & Glynn, S. J. (2012). The effects of paid family and medical leave on employment stability and economic security. Washington, DC: Center for American Progress. Retrieved on September 16, 2013, from http://www.americanprogress.org/wp-content/uploads/issues/2012/04/pdf/BousheyEmploymentLeave1.pdf
  10. Brescoll, V. L., Glass, J., & Sedlovskaya, A. (2013). Ask and ye shall receive? The dynamics of employer-provided flexible work options and the need for public policy. Journal of Social Issues, 69(2), 367–388.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bureau of Labor Statistics. (2013a). Table 2: Employment status of the civilian noninstitutional population 16 years and over by sex, 1973 to date, annual averages 2012. Current Population Survey, Bureau of Labor Statistics.Google Scholar
  12. Bureau of Labor Statistics. (2013b). American time use survey—2012 results. Retrieved October 1, 2013, from http://www.bls.gov/tus/
  13. Bureau of Labor Statistics. (2013c). Table 5. Employment status of the population by sex, marital status, and presence and age of own children under 18, 2011–2012 annual averages. Current Population Survey, Bureau of Labor Statistics.Google Scholar
  14. Catalyst. (2000). Flexible work arrangements III: Part-time arrangements for managers and professionals. New York: Author.Google Scholar
  15. Catalyst. (2006). After-school worries: Tough on parents, bad for business. New York: Author.Google Scholar
  16. Catalyst. (2012a). Practices: TURCK Inc. Life Works @TURCK: Prioritizing employee well-being and flexibility. New York: Author.Google Scholar
  17. Catalyst. (2012b). Practices: The Boston Consulting Group turning off and speaking up for better work and better life. New York: Author.Google Scholar
  18. Catalyst. (2013a). Catalyst quick take: Women in Europe. Retrieved September 1, 2013, from http://www.catalyst.org/knowledge/women-europe
  19. Catalyst. (2013b). Catalyst quick take: Family leave – U.S., Canada, and Global. Retrieved September 20, 2013, from http://www.catalyst.org/knowledge/family-leave-us-canada-and-global
  20. Cohen, E., Mulligan-Ferry, L., & Cambopiano, J. (2013). FlexWorks. New York: Catalyst.Google Scholar
  21. Coltrane, S., Miller, E. C., DeHaan, T., & Stewart, L. (2013). Fathers and the flexibility stigma. Journal of Social Issues, 69(2), 279–302.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Corporate Voices for Working Families. (2005). Business impacts of flexibility: An imperative for expansion. Washington, DC: Author.Google Scholar
  23. Craig, L., & Mullan, K. (2011). How mothers and fathers share childcare: A cross-national time use comparison. American Sociological Review, 76(6), 834–861.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Crosby, F. J. (1991). Juggling: The unexpected advantages to women and their families of balancing work and life. New York: Free Press.Google Scholar
  25. Crosby, F. J., & Sabattini, L. (2005). Family-work balance. In J. Worell & C. Goodheart (Eds.), Handbook of girls’ and women’s psychological health: Gender and well-being across the life span (pp. 350–358). New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  26. Crosby, F. J., Sabattini, L., & Aizawa, M. (2013). Affirmative action and gender equality. In M. K. Ryan & N. R. Branscombe (Eds.), The Sage handbook of gender and psychology (pp. 484–499). London: Sage.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. D’Annolfo Levey, L., Kaplan, M. M., & Horowitz, A. (2008). Making change—Beyond flexibility: Work-life effectiveness as an organizational tool for performance. New York: Catalyst.Google Scholar
  28. Dinolfo, S., Prime, J., & Foust-Cummings, H. (2013). Anatomy of change: How inclusive cultures evolve. New York: Catalyst.Google Scholar
  29. Elsbach, K. D., Cable, D. M., & Sherman, J. W. (2010). How passive ‘face time’ affects perceptions of employees: Evidence of spontaneous trait inference. Human Relations, 63(6), 735–760.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Families and Work Institute. (2012). 2012 National study of employers. New York: Author.Google Scholar
  31. Gerkovich, P. R. (2006). Work/Life policy and practice in the United States: Gendered premise. Radical potential? In F. Jones, R. J. Burke, & M. Westman (Eds.), Work-life balance: A psychological perspective (pp. 276–289). New York: Psychology Press.Google Scholar
  32. Haas, L., & Rostgaard, T. (2011). Fathers’ rights to paid parental leave in the Nordic countries: Consequences for the gendered division of leave. Community, Work & Family, 14(2), 177–195.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Hegewisch, A., & Gornick, G. C. (2008). Statutory routes to workplace flexibility in cross-national perspective. San Francisco: Center for Work-Life Law.Google Scholar
  34. Hegewisch, A., & Gornick, G. C. (2011). The impact of work-family policies on women’s employment: A review of research from OECD countries. Community, Work & Family, 14(2), 119–138.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Johnson, A. A., Shannon, L. L., & Richman, A. L. (2008). Challenging common myths about workplace flexibility: Research notes from the multi-organization database. Community, Work & Family, 11(2), 231–242.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Kelly, E., Moen, P., & Tranby, E. (2011). Changing workplaces to reduce work-family conflict: Schedule control in a white-collar organization. American Sociological Review, 76(2), 265–290.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Kossek, E. E., Lewis, S., & Hammer, L. B. (2010). Work–life initiatives and organizational change: Overcoming mixed messages to move from the margin to the mainstream. Human Relations, 63(1), 3–19.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Kuperberg, A., & Stone, P. (2008). The media depiction of women who opt out. Gender & Society, 22(4), 497–517.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Lyness, K. S., & Kropf, M. B. (2005). The relationship of national gender equality and organizational support with work-family balance: A study of European managers. Human Relations, 58(1), 33–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Macky, K., & Boxall, P. (2008). High-involvement work processes, work intensification and employee well-being: A study of New Zealand worker experiences. Asia Pacific Journal of Human Resources, 46(1), 38–55.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Maitland, A., & Thomson, P. (2011). Future work: How business can adapt and thrive in the new world of work. London: Palgrave Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Mandel, H. (2011). Rethinking the paradox: Tradeoffs in work-family policy and patterns of gender inequality. Community, Work & Family, 14(2), 159–176.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Masuda, A. D., Poelmans, S. A. Y., Allen, T. D., Spector, P. E., Lapierre, L. M., Cooper, C. L., Abarca, N., Brough, P., Ferreiro, P., & Fraile, G. (2012). Flexible work arrangements availability and their relationship with work-to-family conflict, job satisfaction, and turnover intentions: A comparison of three country clusters. Applied Psychology: An International Review, 61(1), 1–29.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. McNall, L. A., Masuda, A. D., & Nicklin, J. M. (2010). Flexible work arrangements, job satisfaction, and turnover intentions: The mediating role of work-to-family enrichment. The Journal of Psychology, 144(1), 61–81.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Moen, P., Kelly, E., Tranby, E., & Huang, Q. (2011). Changing work, changing health: Can real work-time flexibility promote health behaviors and well-being? Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 52(4), 404–429.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Nugent, J. S., Dinolfo, S., & Giscombe, K. (2013). Advancing women: A focus on strategic initiatives. In S. Vinnicombe, R. J. Burke, S. Blake-Beard, & L. L. Moore (Eds.), Handbook of research on promoting women’s careers (pp. 391–405). London: Edwar Elgar Publishing.Google Scholar
  47. Pitt-Catsouphes, M., & Smyer, M. A. (2006, December). One size doesn’t fit all: Workplace flexibility (The Center on Aging and Work at Boston College: Issue Brief 05). Retrieved September 1, 2013, from http://www.bc.edu/content/dam/files/research_sites/agingandwork/pdf/publications/IB05_OneSizeDoesntFit.pdf
  48. Prime, J., & Moss-Racusin, C. A. (2009). Engaging men in gender initiatives: What change agents need to know. New York: Catalyst.Google Scholar
  49. Pruchno, R., Litchfield, L., & Fried, M. (2000). Measuring the impact of workplace flexibility: Findings from the national work life measurement project. Boston: College Center for Work & Family.Google Scholar
  50. Rapoport, R., Bailyn, L., Fletcher, J. K., & Pruitt, B. H. (2002). Beyond family-work balance. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  51. Ray, R., Gornick, J. C., & Schmitt, J. (2008). Parental leave policies in 21 countries: Assessing generosity and gender equality. Washington, DC: Center for Economic and Policy Research. Retrieved on September 20, 2013, from http://www.cepr.net/documents/publications/parental_2008_09.pdf
  52. Rehel, E. M. (2013). When dad stays home too paternity leave, gender, and parenting. Gender & Society, September 26, 2013 Online First, 0891243213503900. Retrieved September 28, from http://gas.sagepub.com/content/early/2013/09/25/0891243213503900.full
  53. Rudman, L. A., & Mescher, K. (2013). Penalizing men who request a family leave: Is flexibility stigma a femininity stigma? Journal of Social Issues, 69(2), 322–340.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Sabattini, L. (2012). Expanding work-life perspectives: Talent management in India. New York: Catalyst.Google Scholar
  55. Sabattini, L., & Carter, N. M. (2012). Expanding work-life perspectives: Talent management in Asia. New York: Catalyst.Google Scholar
  56. Sabattini, L., & Crosby, F. J. (2007). Overcoming resistance: Structures and attitudes. In K. Thomas (Ed.), Diversity resistance in organizations: Manifestations and solutions (pp. 273–301). New York: Lawrence Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  57. Sabattini, L., & Crosby, F. J. (2008). Ceilings and walls: Work-life and “family-friendly” policies. In M. Barreto, M. K. Ryan, & M. T. Schmitt (Eds.), The glass ceiling in the 21st century: Understanding barriers to gender equality (Psychology of women book series, pp. 201–223). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.Google Scholar
  58. Sabattini, L., & Dinolfo, S. (2010). Unwritten rules: Why doing a good job might not be enough. New York: Catalyst.Google Scholar
  59. Sabattini, L., Warren, A., Dinolfo, S., Falk, E., & Castro, M. (2010). Beyond generational differences: Bridging gender and generational diversity at work. New York: Catalyst.Google Scholar
  60. Society for Human Resources Management. (2012). 2011 employee benefits: Examining employee benefits amidst uncertainty. Retrieved September 20, 2013, from http://www.shrm.org/research/surveyfindings/articles/documents/2011_emp_benefits_report.pdf
  61. Statistics Netherlands. (2011). Dutch women: High labour participation rate and high education level (March 8). Retrieved September 1, 2013, from http://www.cbs.nl/en-GB/menu/themas/dossiers/vrouwen-en-mannen/publicaties/artikelen/archief/2011/2011-3336-wm.htm
  62. Stone, P. (2007). Opting out? Why women really quit careers and head home. Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  63. Stone, P., & Hernandez, L. A. (2013). The all or nothing workplace: Flexibility stigma and “opting out” among professional managerial women. Journal of Social Issues, 69(2), 257–278.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Stone, P., Kohler, J., & Hernandez, L. A. (2010). Opting out. Sloan Network Encyclopedia Entry. Retrieved October 10, 2013, from http://workfamily.sas.upenn.edu/wfrn-repo/object/3jg7gr4ip78pw59v
  65. Thompson, C. A., Beauvais, L. L., & Lyness, K. S. (1999). When work-family benefits are not enough: The influence of work-family culture on benefit utilization, organizational attachment, and work-family conflict. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 54, 392–415.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. U.S. Census Bureau. (2012, November 29). Census Bureau releases Equal Employment Opportunity tabulation that provides a profile of America’s workforce. Retrieved September 1, 2013, from http://www.census.gov/newsroom/releases/archives/employment_occupations/cb12-225.html
  67. U.S. Department of Labor. (2013). FMLA frequently asked questions. Retrieved November 28, 2013, from http://www.dol.gov/whd/fmla/fmla-faqs.htm
  68. Valcour, P. M., & Batt, R. (2003). Work-life integration: Challenges and organizational responses. In P. Moen (Ed.), It’s about time: Couples and careers (pp. 310–331). Ithaca: Cornell University Press.Google Scholar
  69. Vandello, J. A., Hettinger, V. A., Bosson, J. K., & Siddiqi, J. (2013). When equal isn’t really equal: The masculine dilemma of seeking work flexibility. Journal of Social Issues, 69(2), 303–321.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Watson, L., & Swanberg, J. E. (2011, May). Flexible workplace solutions for low-wage hourly workers: A framework for a national conversation. Retrieved August, 2012, from http://workplaceflexibility2010.org/images/uploads/whatsnew/Flexible%20Workplace%20Solutions%20for%20Low-Wage%20Hourly%20Workers.pdf
  71. Williams, J. (2000). Unbending gender: Why family and work conflict and what to do about it. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  72. Williams, J. (2007, February). The opt-out revolution revisited. The American Prospect Online, Special Report. Retrieved August 12, 2013, from http://prospect.org/article/opt-out-revolution-revisited
  73. Williams, J. C., Blair-Loy, M., & Berdhal, J. L. (2013a). Cultural schemas, social class, and the flexibility stigma. Journal of Social Issues, 69(2), 209–234.Google Scholar
  74. Williams, J. C., Glass, J., Correll, S., & Berdahl, J. L. (2013b). Special issue: The flexibility stigma. Journal of Social Issues, 69(2), 209–405.Google Scholar
  75. Workplace Flexibility 2010. (2010). Flexible work arrangements: A definition and examples. Retrieved September 20, 2013, from http://workplaceflexibility2010.org/images/uploads/general_information/fwa_definitionsexamples.pdf
  76. WorldatWork. (2009). Flexible work arrangements for nonexempt employees. Scottsdale/Washington, DC: Author.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Catalyst Inc.New YorkUSA
  2. 2.Department of PsychologyUniversity of California Santa CruzSanta CruzUSA

Personalised recommendations