Gender Bias Against Female Leaders: A Review

  • Kim M. ElsesserEmail author
Part of the International Handbooks of Quality-of-Life book series (IHQL)


Substantial empirical evidence supports the existence of bias against female leaders. However, a closer examination reveals that much greater bias is exhibited in studies where hypothetical or laboratory-created leaders are studied, and little or no bias is exhibited against women who actually hold leadership positions. The present review examines the theoretical explanations for the bias against female leaders, the conditions when bias is most likely to occur, who is likely to show the most bias, strategies to eliminate bias, and suggestions for future research in this area.


Female leaders Gender Leadership Bias Discrimination Management Stereotypes Queen bee Quotas Glass cliff 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Center for Study of WomenUniversity of CaliforniaLos AngelesUSA

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