Urinary Proteins with Post-translational Modifications

  • Liu LiuEmail author
  • Xuejiao Liu
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 845)


Research on the human urine proteome may lay the foundation for the discovery of relevant disease biomarkers. Posttranslational modifications (PTMs) have important effects on the functions of protein biomarkers. Identifying PTMs without enrichment adds no extra steps to conventional identification procedures for urine proteomics. The only difference is that this method requires software that can conduct unrestrictive identifications of PTMs. These PTMs include methylation, dehydration, oxidation, hydroxylation, phosphorylation, or dihydroxylation. These data are useful reference for PTM biomarker discovery in the future.


Posttranslational modification Urine proteome Unenriched 


  1. 1.
    Rossing K, Mischak H, Rossing P et al (2008) The urinary proteome in diabetes and diabetes-associated complications: new ways to assess disease progression and evaluate therapy. Proteomics Clin Appl 2:997–1007Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Ahmed N, Hornalley PJT, Adidi RJ et al (2005) Glycated and oxidized protein degradation products are indicators of fasting and postprandial hyperglycemia in diabetes. Diabetes Care 28:2465–2471Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Vivekanandan Giri A, Slocum JL, Buller CL et al (2011) Urine glycoprotein profile reveals novel Markers for chronic kidney disease. Int J Proteomics, 214715Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Christensen B, Petersen TE, Sørensen ES (2008) Posttranslational modification and proteolytic processing of urinary osteopontin. Biochem Soc 411:53–61Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Ye B, Skates S, Mok SC et al (2006) Proteomic-based discovery and characterization of glycosylated eosinophil-derived neurotoxin and COOH-terminal osteopontin fragments for ovarian cancer in urine. Clin Cancer Res 12:432–441Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Thongboonkerd V, Arthur JM, Klein JB (2002) Proteomic analysis of normal human urinary proteins isolated by acetone precipitation or ultracentrifugation. Kidney Int 62:1461–1469Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Kiernan UA, Tubbs KA, Nedelkov D et al (2003) Comparative urine protein phenotyping using mass spectrometric immunoassay. J Proteome Res 2:191–197Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Wang L, Li F, Sun W et al (2006) Concanavalin A-captured glycoproteins in healthy human urine. Mol Cell Proteomics 5:560–562Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Moon PG, Hwang HH, Boo YC et al (2008) Proteomics and 2-DE identification of rat urinary glycoproteome captured by three lectins using gel and LC-based proteomics. Electrophoresis 29:4324–4331Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Halim A, Nilsson J, Rüetschi U et al (2012) Human urinary glycoproteomics; attachment site specific analysis of N- and O-linked glycosylations by CID and ECD. Mol Cell Proteomics 11:M111.013649Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Zhao Y, Jensen ON (2009) Modification-specific proteomics: strategies for characterization of post-translational modifications using enrichment techniques. Proteomics 9:4632–4641Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Li QR, Fan KX, Li RX et al (2010) A comprehensive and non-prefractionation on the protein level approach for the human urinary proteome: touching phosphorylation in urine. Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom 24:823–832Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Na S, Bandeira N, Paek E (2012) Fast multi-blind modification search through tandem mass spectrometry. Mol Cell Proteomics 11:M111.010199Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Han X, He L, Xi L et al (2011) PeaksPTM: mass spectrometry-based identification of peptides with unspecified modifications. J Proteome Res 10:2930–2936Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Liu L, Liu X, Sun W et al (2013) Unrestrictive identification of post-translational modifications in the urine proteome without enrichment. Proteome Science 11:1Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Key Laboratory of Medical Molecular Biology, Department of PathophysiologyInstitute of Basic Medical Sciences, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences/School of Basic MedicineBeijingChina
  2. 2.Department of NephrologyBeijing Anzhen Hospital, Capital Medical UniversityBeijingChina
  3. 3.Department of NephrologyPeking Union Medical College HospitalBeijingChina

Personalised recommendations