Urine Is a Better Biomarker Source Than Blood Especially for Kidney Diseases

  • Youhe GaoEmail author
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 845)


Change is the soul of biomarker definition. Changes are more likely to be removed from blood because of homeostasis mechanisms of the body. Therefore, urine is probably a better biomarker source than blood. The road map to the urinary biomarker era is proposed. Researchers are reminded the potential opportunities and risks in their study design. Kidney diseases are emphasized as they produce most significant changes in urine.


Change Homeostasis Confounding factors Animal model 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.National Key Laboratory of Medical Molecular Biology, Department of Pathophysiology, Institute of Basic Medical SciencesChinese Academy of Medical Sciences/School of Basic MedicineBeijingChina

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