Advertisement

The Index of Social Progress: Objective Approaches (3)

  • Richard J. EstesEmail author
Chapter
Part of the International Handbooks of Quality-of-Life book series (IHQL)

Abstract

World social development has arrived at a critical turning point. Economically advanced nations have made significant progress toward meeting the basic needs of their populations; however, the majority of developing countries have not. Problems of rapid population growth, failing economies, famine, environmental devastation, majority-minority group conflicts, increasing militarization, among others, are pushing many developing nations toward the brink of social chaos. This chapter focuses on global development trends for the 40-year period 1970–2011. Particular attention is given to the disparities in development that exist both within and between the world’s “rich” and “poor” countries–disparities in income that affect at least 1,000 million people and which are unsustainable over the long term. This chapter examines the internal and external social, economic, and political inequalities that sustain these disparities. The chapter also discusses the more recent positive developing trends that are taking place in the world’s least developed countries of Africa, Asia and Latin America. In the main, the recent dramatic improvements taking place is these countries are associated with the launching in 2005 of the United Nations’ Millennium Development Campaign with its ambitious eight Millennium Development Goals (MDGs).

Keywords

Development Social development Economic development Political development Social transformation Progress Quality of life Wellbeing Assessment 

References

  1. African Development Bank (AfDB). (2012). African economic outlook, 2012. Retrieved December 1, 2012 from: http://www.africaneconomicoutlook.org/en/
  2. African Development Bank (AfDB). (2013). Data and statistics. Retrieved December 15, 2012 from: http://www.africaneconomicoutlook.org/en/data-statistics/
  3. Amnesty International (AI). (2012). The state of the world’s human rights, 2012. Retrieved December 1, 2012 from: http://thereport.amnesty.org/
  4. Anheier, H., Toepler, S., & List, R. (Eds.). (2010). International encyclopedia of civil society. New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  5. Anyanwu, J. C. (2011, August). International remittances and income inequality in Africa (Working Paper Series No. 135). Tunis: African Development Bank.Google Scholar
  6. Asian Development Bank (ADB). (2012). Asian development outlook, 2012. Retrieved November 25, 2012 from: http://www.adb.org/publications/series/asian-development-outlook
  7. Asian Development Bank (ADB). (2013). Data and research. Retrieved January 13, 2013 from: http://www.adb.org/data/main
  8. Beck, W., et al. (1998). The social quality of Europe. Bristol: The Policy Press.Google Scholar
  9. Bell, D. (1969). Toward a social report. The Public Interest, 15, 72–84.Google Scholar
  10. Boyd, R. (2008, March 31). The last days of Bear Stearns. Fortune. Retrieved February 21, 2013 from: http://money.cnn.com/2008/03/28/magazines/fortune/boyd_bear.fortune/
  11. Bulatao, R. A. (1998). The unmet need for contraception in developing countries (Summary of Rand Working Paper No. MR-978-WFHF/RF/UNFPA). Retrieved February 20, 2013 from: http://www.rand.org/pubs/research_briefs/RB5024/index1.html
  12. Campbell, A., Converse, P., & Rodgers, W. (1976). The quality of American life: Perceptions, evaluations and satisfactions. New York: Russell Sage.Google Scholar
  13. Central Intelligence Agency (CIA). (2013). World factbook, 2013. Retrieved January 2, 2013 from: https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/
  14. Clifton, J. (2012). Latin Americans most positive in the world. Gallup World. Retrieved January 31, 2013 from: http://www.gallup.com/poll/159254/latin-americans-positive-world.aspx
  15. Cline, W. R., & Wolff, G. (2012). Resolving the European debt crisis. Brueghel: Petersen Institute for International Economics.Google Scholar
  16. Council on Foreign Relations. (2007). African migration to Europe. Retrieved February 11, 2013 from: http://www.cfr.org/africa/african-migration-europe/p13726
  17. Drenowski, J., & Wolf, S. (1966). The level of living index. Geneva: United Nations Research Institute for Social Development.Google Scholar
  18. Editors. (2011a, November 12). Staring into the abyss. The Economist. Retried February 7, 2013 from: http://www.economist.com/node/21536872
  19. Editors. (2011b, June 24). Coughs and sneezes. The Economist. Retrieved February 7, 2013 from: http://www.economist.com/blogs/dailychart/2011/06/financial-contagion
  20. Editors. (2012, May 19). The Eurozone economy: North and south. The Economist. Retrieved February 7, 2013 from: http://www.economist.com/node/2155559519
  21. Editors. (2013). The Eurozone crisis. The Economist. Retrieved February 7, 2013 from: http://www.economist.com/node/21524378
  22. Ellingsen, T. (2000). Colorful community or ethnic witches’ brew? Multi-ethnicity and domestic conflict during and after the cold war. Journal of Conflict Resolution, 44, 228–249.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Encyclopedia of Nations. (2013). Economic and social development – First UN development decade. Retrieved January 31, 2013 from: http://www.nationsencyclopedia.com/United-Nations/Economic-and-Social-Development-FIRST-UN-DEVELOPMENT-DECADE.html#ixzz2JZUxv1IG
  24. Estes, R. J. (1976). World social welfare analysis: A theoretical model, (with John S. Morgan). International Social Work, 19(2), 29–41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Estes, R. J. (1984). The social progress of nations. New York: Praeger.Google Scholar
  26. Estes, R. J. (1988). Trends in world social development. New York: Praeger.Google Scholar
  27. Estes, R. J. (1995). Social development trends in Africa: The need for a new development paradigm. Social Development Issues, 17(1), 18–47.Google Scholar
  28. Estes, R. J. (1996a). Social development trends in Latin America, 1970–1994: In the shadows of the 21st century. Social Development Issues, 18(1), 25–52.Google Scholar
  29. Estes, R. J. (1996b). Social development trends in Asia, 1970–1994: The challenges of a new century. Social Indicators Research, 37(2), 119–148.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Estes, R. J. (1998a). Resources for social and economic development: A guide to the scholarly literature. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania School of Social Work.Google Scholar
  31. Estes, R. J. (1998b). Social development trends in the successor states to the former Soviet Union: The search for a new paradigm. In K. R. Hope Jr. (Ed.), Challenges of transformation and transition from centrally planned to market economies (pp. 13–33). Nagoya: United Nations Centre for Regional Development.Google Scholar
  32. Estes, R. J. (1998c). Trends in world social development, 1970–95: Development prospects for a new century. Journal of Developing Societies, 14(1), 11–39.Google Scholar
  33. Estes, R. J. (2004). Development challenges of the New Europe. Social Indicators Research, 69, 123–166.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Estes, R. J. (2007a). Asia and the new century: Challenges and opportunities. Social Indicators Research, 82(3), 375–410.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Estes, R. J. (2007b). Development challenges and opportunities confronting economies in transition. Social Indicators Research, 83, 375–411.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Estes, R. J. (2010). The world social situation: Development challenges at the outset of a new century. Social Indicators Research, 3, 363–402.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Estes, R. J. (2012a). “Failed” and “failing” states: Is quality of life possible? In K. Land, A. C. Michalos, & M. Joseph Sirgy (Eds.), Handbook of quality of life research (pp. 555–580). Dordrecht: Springer.Google Scholar
  38. Estes, R. J. (2012b). Economies in transition: Continuing challenges to quality of life. In K. Land, A. C. Michalos, & M. Joseph Sirgy (Eds.), Handbook of quality of life research (pp. 433–457). Dordrecht: Springer.Google Scholar
  39. Estes, R. J. (2013a). Development trends among the world’s socially least developed countries: Reasons for cautious optimism. In B. Spooner (Ed.), Globalization in progress: Understanding and working with world urbanization. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press (in press).Google Scholar
  40. Estes, R. J. (2013b). United Nations yearbooks, statistical collections, and data bases. In A. Michalos (Ed.), Encyclopedia of quality of life and well-being. Dordrecht: Springer.Google Scholar
  41. Estes, R. J., & Tiliouine. (2014). Development trends in Islamic societies: From collective issues to concerted actions. Social Indicators Research, 116(1), 67–114.Google Scholar
  42. Estes, R. J., & Zhou, Huiquan (Mary). (2015). The public-private mix in comparative social welfare policy. International Journal of Social Welfare (in press).Google Scholar
  43. European Union (EU). (2013). Development aid and cooperation. Retrieved January 15, 2013 from: http://europa.eu/pol/dev/index_en.htm
  44. Ferris, A. L. (2010). Approaches to improving the quality of life. Dordrecht: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Forbes. (2013). The world’s billionaires, 2013. Retrieved January 31, 2013 from: http://www.forbes.com/billionaires/Forbes
  46. Foundation Center. (2012). International grant-making update: A snapshot of U.S. foundation trends. New York: Foundation Center.Google Scholar
  47. Freedom House (FH). (2012). Freedom in the world, 2012. Retrieved January 2, 2013 from: http://www.freedomhouse.org/report-types/freedom-world
  48. Freedom House (FH). (2013). Country report: India. Retrieved February 6, 2013 from: http://www.freedomhouse.org/country/india
  49. Fund for Peace. (2011). “Failed” states index scores. Foreign Policy & the Fund for Peace. Retrieved January 2, 2013 from: http://www.fundforpeace.org/web/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=229&Itemid=366
  50. Fund for Peace. (2013). Home page. Retrieved February 21, 2013 from: http://www.fundforpeace.org/
  51. Ghani, E. (Ed.). (2010). The poor half billion in South Asia. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  52. Glatzer, W. (Ed.). (2002). Rich and poor: Disparities, perceptions, concomitants. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers.Google Scholar
  53. Glatzer, W. et al. (1992). Recent development trends in West Germany. Frankfurt-am-Main: Campus Verlag/McGill-Queens University Press.Google Scholar
  54. Glatzer, W., von Below, S., & Stoffregen, M. (2004). Challenges for quality of life in the contemporary world: Advances in quality-of-life studies, theory and research. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Glennie, J. (2008). The trouble with aid: Why less could mean more for Africa. London: Zed Books.Google Scholar
  56. Guo, B. (Ed.). (2010). The financial and economic crises: An international perspective. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar.Google Scholar
  57. Guo, S., & Guo, B. (Eds.). (2010). Greater China in an era of globalization. Lanham: Rowman and Littlefield Publishers.Google Scholar
  58. Hagerty, M., Vogel, J., & Moeller, V. (2002). Assessing quality of life and living conditions to guide national policy: The state of the art. Special Issue of Social Indicators Research, 58, 1–44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Hastings, N. (2013, November 11). Euro rise will be a problem for euro zone soon. Wall Street Journal. Retrieved January 28, 2013 from: http://blogs.wsj.com/eurocrisis/2013/01/28/euro-rise-will-be-a-problem-for-euro-zone-soon/
  60. Horioka, C. Y., & Terada-Hagiwara, A. (2011). The determinants and long-term projections of saving rates in developing Asia (NBER Working Paper No. 17581). National Bureau of Economic Research.Google Scholar
  61. International Labour Organization (ILO). (2012a). Yearbook of labour statistics, 2012. Retrieved January 3, 2013 from: http://www.ilo.org/stat/Publications/Yearbook/lang--en/index.htm
  62. International Labour Organization (ILO). (2012b). The hidden face of youth unemployment. Retrieved January 24, 2013 from: http://www.ilo.org/global/research/global-reports/global-employment-trends/youth/2012/WCMS_181063/lang--en/index.htm
  63. International Monetary Fund (IMF). (2012a). The heavily indebted poor countries (HIPC) initiative. Retrieved January 10, 2013 from: http://web.worldbank.org/WBSITE/EXTERNAL/TOPICS/EXTDEBTDEPT/0,,contentMDK:20260411~menuPK:64166739~pagePK:64166689~piPK:64166646~theSitePK:469043,00.html
  64. International Monetary Fund (IMF). (2012b). Caucasus, Central Asia see solid growth, but risks remain. Retrieved January 15, 2013 from: http://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/survey/so/2012/car042012b.htm
  65. International Monetary Fund (IMF). (2013a). Debt relief under the heavily indebted poor countries (HIPC) initiative: Factsheet. Retrieved January 3, 2013 from: http://www.imf.org/external/np/exr/facts/hipc.htm
  66. International Monetary Fund (IMF). (2013b). Sovereign debt in advanced economies: Overview and issues for Congress. Retrieved February 3, 2013 from: http://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/misc/R41838.pdf
  67. International Organization of Migration (IOM). (2013). Facts and figures: Global estimates and trends. Retrieved February 12, 2013 from: http://www.iom.int/cms/en/sites/iom/home/about-migration/facts--figures-1.html
  68. Jacobsson, B. (Ed.). (2010). The European Union and the Baltic States: Changing forms of governance. London/New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  69. Land, K. C., & Spillerman, S. (Eds.). (1975). Social indicator models. New York: Russell Sage.Google Scholar
  70. Lapavitsas, C. (2012). Crisis in the Eurozone. London: Verso.Google Scholar
  71. Leonard, D., & Straus, S. (2003). Africa’s stalled development. Boulder: Lynne Rienner.Google Scholar
  72. Little, J. S. (Ed.). (2008). Global imbalances and the evolving world economy. Boston: Federal Reserve Bank of Boston.Google Scholar
  73. McGranahan, D. V., Richard-Proust, C., Sovani, N. V., & Subramanian, M. (1972). Contents and measurement of socio-economic development. New York: Praeger.Google Scholar
  74. Mehrotra, S., & Jolly, R. (Eds.). (1997). Development with a human face: Experiences in social achievement and economic growth. Oxford/New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  75. Metcalf, B. D., & Metcalf, T. R. (2006). A concise history of modern India (2nd ed.). Cambridge/New York: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Ministry of Finance, Government of India. (2012). The BRICS report, 2012. Oxford/New York: Oxford University Press. Retrieved February 5, 2013 from: http://www.g20civil.com/documents/199/499/
  77. Ministry of Foreign Affairs. (2005). Initiatives of Japan toward 2014: The Millennium development goals. Retrieved February 8, 2013 from: http://www.mofa.go.jp/policy/oda/mdg/pamph2015.pdf
  78. Miringoff, M. L., Miringoff, M. L., & Opdyke, S. (1999). The social health of the nation: How America is really doing. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  79. Morris, M. D. (1979). Measuring the conditions of the world’s poor: The physical quality of life index. New York: Pergamon Press for the Overseas Development Council.Google Scholar
  80. Moyo, D. (2009). Dead aid: Why aid is not working and how there is a better way for Africa. New York: Farrar, Straus, & Giroux.Google Scholar
  81. Navarro, A. (2011). Global capitalist crisis and the second great depression: Egalitarian systemic models for change. Lanham: Lexington Books.Google Scholar
  82. Nelson, R. M. (2013). Sovereign debt in advanced economies: Overview and issues for congress. A report prepared by the U.S. Congressional Research Service (CRS). Retrieved February 21, 21, 2013 from: http://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/misc/R41838.pdf
  83. Noll, H.-H. (1996). Social indicators and social reporting: The international experiences. Mannheim: ZUMA.Google Scholar
  84. Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). (2008). Central Asia: Competitiveness and private sector development. Retrieved February 3, 2013 from: http://www.oecd.org/daf/privatesectordevelopment/46973993.pdf
  85. Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). (2009). The road to recovery: Update on the OECD’s strategic response to the financial and economic crisis. Retrieved February 20, 2013 from: http://www.oecd.org/economy/42528786.pdf
  86. Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). (2012a). Population statistics. Retrieved January 3, 2013 from: http://stats.oecd.org/
  87. Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). (2012b). Migration statistics. Retrieved January 3, 2013 from: http://stats.oecd.org/
  88. Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). (2012c). Aid statistics. Retrieved January 3, 2013 from: http://www.oecd.org/dac/aidstatistics/
  89. Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). (2012d). Statistics. Paris: OECD.Google Scholar
  90. Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). (2013). Tackling the crisis: A strategic response. Retrieved February 20, 2013 from: http://www.oecd.org/general/tacklingthecrisisastrategicresponse.htm
  91. Population Reference Bureau (PRB). (2012). World population data sheet, 2012. Retrieved January 3, 2013 from: http://www.prb.org/pdf12/2012-population-data-sheet_eng.pdf
  92. Sachs, J. D. (2008). Commonwealth: Economics for a crowded planet. New York: The Penguin Press.Google Scholar
  93. Sakellaropoulos, T. (2012, February 12). Debt crisis and the welfare state in Greece. Global Dialogue: Newsletter for the International Sociological Association.Google Scholar
  94. Save the Children. (2013). Statistics: Situation of children in India. Retrieved February 20, 2013 from: http://america.cry.org/site/know_us/cry_america_and_child_rights/statistics_underprivileged_chi.html
  95. Sen, A. (2009). The idea of justice. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  96. Sheldon, E. B., & Moore, W. E. (Eds.). (1968). Indicators of social change: Concepts and measurement. New York: Russell Sage.Google Scholar
  97. Singh, R. S. K. (2003). Role of NGOs in developing countries: Potential, constraints and policies. New Delhi: Vedams Books.Google Scholar
  98. Sneider, D. (1980). The report of the (Brandt North–south) commission. Retrieved February 8, 2013 from: http://www.larouchepub.com/eiw/public/1980/eirv07n09-19800304/eirv07n09-19800304_026-the_report_of_the_brandt_commiss.pdf
  99. Society for Human Resource Management (SHRM). (2009). Global diversity and inclusion: Perceptions, practices, and attitudes. Prepared in collaboration with the Economist Intelligence Unit (EIU). Retrieved February 21, 2013 from: http://www.shrm.org/research/surveyfindings/articles/documents/diversity_and_inclusion_report.pdf
  100. Streeten, P. (1981). First things first: Meeting basic human needs in developing countries. New York: Oxford University Press for the World Bank.Google Scholar
  101. Transparency International (TI). (2012). Global corruption index, 2012. Retrieved January 3, 2013 from: http://www.transparency.org/whatwedo/pub/corruption_perceptions_index_2012
  102. U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID). (2013). Millennium development goals. Retrieved February 8, 2013 from: http://www.usaid.gov/mdg
  103. U.S. Department of Health, Education and Welfare (USDHEW). (1969). Toward a social report. Washington: GPO.Google Scholar
  104. United Nations (UN). (1975). Toward a system of social and economic indicators. New York: United Nations.Google Scholar
  105. United Nations (UN). (2005). Investing in development: A practical plan to achieve the millennium development goals. New York/London: Earthscan.Google Scholar
  106. United Nations (UN). (2012a). The millennium development goals report, 2012. Retrieved January 3, 2013 from: http://www.un.org/en/development/desa/publications/mdg-report-2012.html
  107. United Nations (UN). (2012b). Millennium development goals: 2012 progress chart. Retrieved January 3, 2013 from: http://www.un.org/millenniumgoals/pdf/2012_Progress_E.pdf
  108. United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF). (2012). The State of the world’s children, 2012. Retrieved January 3, 2013 from: http://www.unicef.org/sowc2012/
  109. United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs (UNDESA). (1995). World summit for social development. Retrieved January 3, 2013 from: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/wssd/index.html
  110. United Nations Development Programme (UNDP). (1992). Global dimensions of human development. Retrieved February 1, 2013 from: http://hdr.undp.org/en/reports/global/hdr1992/
  111. United Nations Development Programme (UNDP). (2010). Acting on the future breaking the intergenerational transmission of inequality. RetrievedFebruary 1, 2013 from: http://hdr.undp.org/en/reports/regionalreports/latinamericathecaribbean/name,3401,en.html
  112. United Nations Development Programme (UNDP). (2011). Human development report, 2011: Sustainability and equity – A better future for all. New York: UNDP.Google Scholar
  113. United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP). (2003). Foreign direct investment in central Asian and Caucasian economies: Policies and issues. Retrieved February 4, 2013 from: http://www.unescap.org/tid/publication/t&ipub2255.pdf
  114. United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP). (2010). Paths to 2015: MDG priorities in Asia and the Pacific. Retrieved January 3, 2013 from: http://www.mdgasiapacific.org/files/MDG%20Paths%20to%202015%20Final.pdf
  115. United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP). (2012). Statistical yearbook for Asia and the Pacific, 2012. Retrieved January 3, 2013 from: http://www.unescap.org/stat/data/syb2012/index.asp
  116. United Nations Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (ECLAC). (2012). Statistical yearbook for Latin America and the Caribbean, 2012. Retrieved January 3, 2013 from: http://www.cepal.org/cgi-bin/getProd.asp?xml=/publicaciones/xml/4/48864/P48864.xml&xsl=/tpl-i/p9f.xsl&base=/tpl/top-bottom.xsl
  117. United Nations Office of the High Representative for Least Developed Countries, Landlocked Developing Countries, and Small Island Developing Countries (OHRLLS). (2009). List of LDCs. Retrieved January 3, 2013 from: http://www.unohrlls.org/en/ldc/related/62/
  118. United States Census Bureau. (2012). Income, expenditures, poverty, & wealth: Poverty. Retrieved February 3, 2013 from: http://www.census.gov/compendia/statab/cats/income_expenditures_poverty_wealth/poverty.html
  119. United States Social Security Administration (USSSA). (2011). Social security programs throughout the world: Asia, 2010. Retrieved January 3, 2013 from: http://www.ssa.gov/policy/docs/progdesc/ssptw/2010-2011/asia/index.html
  120. United States Social Security Administration (USSSA). (2012). Social security programs throughout the world. Washington: Government Printing Office. May also be downloaded from: http://www.ssa.gov/policy/docs/progdesc/ssptw/2012-2013/europe/index.html
  121. U.S. Department of the Treasury. (2013). Major foreign holders of treasury securities. Retrieved February 12, 2013 from: http://www.treasury.gov/resource-center/data-chart-center/tic/Documents/mfh.txt
  122. Wan, G. (2008). Poverty reduction in China: Is high growth enough? Helsinki: United Nations University, World Institute for Development Economics Research.Google Scholar
  123. Wikipedia. (2013a). List of on-going military conflicts. Retrieved January 3, 2013 from: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_ongoing_conflicts
  124. Wikipedia. (2013b). List of wars 2011-present. Retrieved January 3, 2013 from: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_wars_2011%E2%80%93present
  125. Wikipedia. (2013c). Marshall plan. Retrieved February 4, 2013 from: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Marshall_Plan
  126. Wikipedia. (2013d). Ummah. Retrieved February 4, 2013 from: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ummah
  127. Wikipedia. (2013e). Financial crisis, 2007–2008. Retrieved February 4, 2013 from: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Financial_crisis_of_2007%E2%80%932008
  128. World Bank (WB). (2013a). World development report, 2013: Jobs. Retrieved January 3, 2013 from: http://siteresources.worldbank.org/EXTNWDR2013/Resources/8258024-1320950747192/8260293-1322665883147/WDR_2013_Report.pdf
  129. World Bank (WB). (2013b). Poverty. Retrieved January 31, 2013 from: http://www.worldbank.org/en/topic/poverty
  130. World Bank. (2013c). World development indicators. Retrieved February 20, 2013 from: http://data.worldbank.org/news/world-development-indicators-2012-now-available
  131. World Health Organization (WHO). (2012). World health statistics, 2012. Retrieved January 3, 2013 from: http://www.who.int/gho/publications/world_health_statistics/2012/en/index.html
  132. World Resource Institute (WRI). (1999). Inequality and conflict. Retrieved February 21, 2013 from: http://www.wri.org/publication/content/8373
  133. World Resources Institute (WRI). (2013). Data sets. Retrieved January 3, 2013 from: http://www.wri.org/publications/data-sets
  134. Zapf, W., (1984). Individuelle wohlfahrt: Lebensbedingungen und wahrgenommene lebensqualität. In W. Glatzer & W. Zapf (Ed.), Lebensqualität in der Bundesrepublik, (pp. 13–26). Frankfurt a. M./New York: Campus.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Social Policy and PracticeUniversity of PennsylvaniaPhiladelphiaUSA

Personalised recommendations