Advertisement

Sports and Emotions

  • Gretchen PetersonEmail author
Chapter
Part of the Handbooks of Sociology and Social Research book series (HSSR)

Abstract

Sports are a ubiquitous feature of social life, yet it is an arena that has not received systematic study. Over the past several decades, there have been a number of studies that have worked to connect sports and emotions, but sociologists of emotions are uniquely positioned to lead research in this area. Early work connecting sports and emotions drew from the perspectives of Elias and Scheff and focused on the arousal of pleasurable excitement and on catharsis. Since these early works, research has addressed emotion management by athletes and emotional labor in sports industries. Both athletes and sports spectators are involved in developing sports identities and communities. Indeed, the rituals associated with sports fandom and involvement as a spectator create an identity for people and lead to the development of community. Further consideration in this chapter is given to the role of gender in the connection between sports and emotions as well as to how sports performance leads to emotional reactions. Ultimately, the connections between sports and emotions should be made both through the sociology of sport and sociology through sport. While emotions theories can be brought to bear upon the arena of sports to better understand that arena, sports can also provide a venue for applying and extending theories of emotions.

Keywords

Sports Emotions Emotion management Gender 

References

  1. Adler, P. A., & Adler, P. (1989). The gloried self: The aggrandizement and constriction of self. Social Psychology Quarterly, 52, 299–310.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Angelini, J. R. (2008). How did the sport make you feel? Looking at three dimensions of emotions through a gendered lens. Sex Roles, 58, 127–135.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Ball, D. W. (1976). Failure in sport. American Sociological Review, 41, 726–739.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Biernat, M., & Vescio, T. K. (2002). She swings, she’s great, she’s benched: Implications of gender-based shifting standards for judgment and behavior. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 28, 66–77.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Birrell, S. (1981). Sport as ritual: Interpretations from Durkheim to Goffman. Social Forces, 60, 354–376.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bourdieu, P. (1988). Program for a sociology of sport. Sociology of Sport Journal, 5, 153–161.Google Scholar
  7. Burns, T. (1955). The reference of conduct in small groups: Cliques and cabals in occupational Milieux. Human Relations, 8, 467–486.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Chambliss, D. F. (1989). The mundanity of excellence: An ethnographic report on stratification and olympic swimmers. Sociological Theory, 7, 70–86.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Cohen, E. G., & Roper, S. S. (1972). Modification of interracial interaction disability: An application of status characteristic theory. American Sociological Review, 37, 643–657.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Collins, R. (2004). Interaction ritual chains. Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  11. Collinson, J. A. (2005). Emotions, interaction and the injured sporting body. International Review for the Sociology of Sport, 40, 221–240.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Cottingham, M. D. (2012). Interaction ritual theory and sports fans: Emotions, symbols, and solidarity. Sociology of Sport Journal, 29, 168–185.Google Scholar
  13. Currier, D. M. (2004). Gendered athletes: The social construction of gender, sexuality, and emotion among college athletes. Ph. D. Dissertation.Google Scholar
  14. Davis-Delano, L. R., Pollock, A., & Vose, J. E. (2009). Apologetic behavior among female athletes: A new questionnaire and initial results. International Review for the Sociology of Sport, 44, 131–150.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Dunning, E. (1986). “Preface.” pp. 1–18 in quest for excitement: Sport and leisure in the civilizing process. New York: Basil Blackwell.Google Scholar
  16. Eckstein, R., Moss, D. M., & Delaney, K. J. (2010). Sports sociology’s still untapped potential. Sociological Forum, 25, 500–518.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Elias, N., & Dunning, E. (1970). The quest for excitement in unexciting societies. In G. Lueschen (Ed.), The cross-cultural analysis of sport and games. Champaign: Stipes Publishing Company.Google Scholar
  18. Elias, N., & Dunning, E. (1986). Quest for excitement: Sport and leisure in the civilizing process. New York: Basil Blackwell.Google Scholar
  19. Ferguson, J. D. (1981). Emotions in sport sociology. International Review of Sport Sociology, 16, 15–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Frey, J. H., & Stanley Eitzen, D. (1991). Sport and society. Annual Review of Sociology, 17, 503–522.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Gallmeier, C. P. (1987). Putting on the game face: The staging of emotions in professional hockey. Sociology of Sport Journal, 4, 347–362.Google Scholar
  22. Gallmeier, C. P. (1989). Traded, waived, or gassed: Failure in the occupational world of ice hockey. Journal of Sport and Social Issues, 13, 25–45.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Goffman, E. (1952). Cooling the mark out: Some adaptations to failure. Psychiatry: Journal for the Study of Interpersonal Relations, 15, 451–463.Google Scholar
  24. Goffman, E. (1956). Embarrassment and social organization. American Journal of Sociology, 62, 264–274.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Goldstein, J. H., & Arms, R. L. (1971). Effects of observing athletic contests on hostility. Sociometry, 34, 83–90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Greer, D. L. (1983). Spectator booing and the home advantage: A study of social influence in the basketball arena. Social Psychology Quarterly, 46, 252–261.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Halbert, C. (1997). Tough enough and woman enough: Stereotypes, discrimination, and impression management among women professional boxers. Journal of Sport and Social Issues, 21, 7–36.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Hochschild, A. R. (1979). Emotion work, feeling rules, and social structure. American Journal of Sociology, 85, 551–575.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Hochschild, A. R. (1983). The managed heart: Commercialization of human feeling. Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  30. Iliycheva, M. (2005). Faithful until death: Sports fans and nationalist discourse in Bulgarian internet forums. Polish Sociological Review, 3, 251–270.Google Scholar
  31. Jarvie, G., & Maguire, J. (1994). Sport and leisure in social thought. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  32. Kemper, T. D. (1990). Social relations and emotions: A structural approach. In T. D. Kemper (Ed.), Research agendas in the sociology of emotions (pp. 207–237). Alban: State University of New York Press.Google Scholar
  33. Klein, A. M. (1995). Tender machos: Masculine contrasts in the Mexican Baseball League. Sociology of Sport Journal, 12, 370–388.Google Scholar
  34. Lawler, E. J. (2001). An affect theory of social exchange. American Journal of Sociology, 107, 321–352.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Lever, J. (1983). Soccer madness. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  36. Lilleaas, U.-B. (2007). Masculinities, sport, and emotions. Men and Masculinities, 10, 39–53.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Locke, A. (2003). If I’m not nervous, I’m worried, does that make sense?: The use of emotion concepts by athletes in accounts of performance. Forum: Qualitative Social Research, 4, Article 10.Google Scholar
  38. Maguire, J. (1988). Research note: doing figurational sociology: Some preliminary observations on methodological issues and sensitizing concepts. Leisure Studies, 7, 187–193.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Maguire, J. (1991). Towards a sociological theory of sport and the emotions: A figurational perspective. International Review for the Sociology of Sport, 26, 25–35.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Maguire, J. S. (2001). Fit and flexible: The fitness industry, personal trainers, and emotional service labor. Sociology of Sport Journal, 18, 379–402.Google Scholar
  41. Maguire, J. A. (2011). Welcome to the pleasure dome?: Emotions, Leisure, and Society. Sport in. Society, 14, 913–926.Google Scholar
  42. Malcom, N. L. (2003). Constructing female athleticism: A study of girls’ recreational softball. American Behavioral Scientist, 46, 1387–1404.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Messner, M. A., Duncan, M. C., & Jensen, K. (1993). Separating the men from the girls: The gendered language of televised sports. Gender and.Society, 7, 121–137.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Munch, A. (2005). Everyone gets to participate: Floating community in an amateur softball league. In C. Morrill, D. A. Snow, & C. H. White (Eds.), Together alone: Personal relationships in public places (pp. 111–133). Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  45. Nixon, H. L. (1997). Gender, sport, and aggressive behavior outside sport. Journal of Sport Social Issues, 21, 379–391.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Ortiz, S. M. (2010). Competing with her mother-in-law: The intersection of control management and emotion management in sport families. Studies in Symbolic Interaction, 35, 319–344.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Paules, G. F. (1991). Dishing it out: Power and resistance among waitresses in a New Jersey restaurant. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.Google Scholar
  48. Peterson, G. (2012). The generalized exchange of punishments in adult recreational softball: The case of ‘Going Middle’. Current Research in Social Psychology, 19, 25–34.Google Scholar
  49. Peterson, G. (2013). Middle’s open!: Norms regarding hitting in adult recreational softball. Social Sciences Directory, 2, 3–13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Putnam, R. D. (2000). Bowling alone: The collapse and revival of American community. New York: Touchstone.Google Scholar
  51. Scheff, T. J. (1979). Catharsis in healing, ritual, and drama. Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  52. Schwartz, B., & Barsky, S. F. (1977). The home advantage. Social Forces, 55, 641–661.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Smith, T. R. (2008). Passion work: The joint production of emotional labor in professional wrestling. Social Psychology Quarterly, 71, 157–176.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Snyder, E. E. (1990). Emotion and sport: A case study of collegiate women gymnasts. Sociology of Sport Journal, 7, 254–270.Google Scholar
  55. Snyder, E. E., & Ammons, R. (1993). Baseball’s emotion work: Getting psyched to play. Qualitative Sociology, 16, 111–132.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Snyder, E. E., & Ammons, R. (1993b). Adult participation in coed softball: Relations in a gender integrated sport. Journal of Sport Behavior, 16, 3–15.Google Scholar
  57. Theberge, N. (1997). It’s part of the game: Physicality and the production of gender in women’s hockey. Gender and. Society, 11, 69–87.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Thoits, P. A. (1990). Emotional deviance: Research agendas. In T. D. Kemper (Ed.), Research agendas in the sociology of emotions (pp. 180–203). Albany: State University of New York Press.Google Scholar
  59. Van Ingen, C. (2011). Spatialities of anger: Emotional geographies in a boxing program for survivors of violence. Sociology of Sport Journal, 28, 171–188.Google Scholar
  60. Wachs, F. L. (2002). Leveling the playing field: Negotiating gendered rules in coed softball. Journal of Sport and Social Issues, 26, 300–316.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Wachs, F. L. (2005). The boundaries of difference: Negotiating gender in recreational sport. Sociological Inquiry, 75, 527–547.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Washington, R. E., & Karen, D. (2001). Sport and society. Annual Review of Sociology, 27, 187–212.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Watson, T. (1987). Women athletes and athletic women: The dilemmas and contradictions of managing incongruent identities. Sociological Inquiry, 57, 432–446.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Wenner, L. A., & Gratz, W. (1989). Experience with sports on television. In L. A. Wenner (Ed.), Media, sports, and society (pp. 241–269). Newbury Park: Sage.Google Scholar
  65. Whisenant, W., & Jordan, J. S. (2008). Fairness and enjoyment in school sponsored youth sports. International Review for the Sociology of Sport, 43, 91–100.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Young, K., & White, P. (1995). Sport, physical danger, and injury: The experience of elite women athletes. Journal of Sport and Social Issues, 19, 45–61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Zirin, D. (2008). Calling sports sociology off the bench. Contexts, 7, 28–31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Zurcher, L. A. (1982). The staging of emotions: A dramaturgical analysis. Symbolic Interaction, 5, 1–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.California State UniversityLos AngelesUSA

Personalised recommendations