Advertisement

Families and Emotions

  • Rebecca J EricksonEmail author
  • Marci D. Cottingham
Chapter
Part of the Handbooks of Sociology and Social Research book series (HSSR)

Abstract

As attention to the emotional dimensions of social structure, culture, and individual development has grown, scholars have renewed their interest in the emotional lives of family members. The current chapter examines three key areas of interdisciplinary research on emotion within families. It first explores how biological predispositions are activated and shaped through processes of emotional socialization within families. The chapter then examines the gendered performance of emotion work, demonstrating how family-related emotion management connects embodied experience with the maintenance of social systems over time. And finally, the chapter concludes with a discussion of how emotional capital links emotion in families with members’ experiences in other institutions. Given that families are charged with passing on emotion knowledge, skills, and capacities to the next generation, the chapter highlights the ways that families are critical for understanding how emotions contribute to the reproduction of inequalities as well as having the potential to mobilize transformational social practice.

Keywords

Family Emotion Socialization Emotion work Emotional capital 

References

  1. Acker, J. (2006). Inequality regimes: Gender, class, and race in organizations. Gender and Society, 20(4), 441–464.Google Scholar
  2. Bandura, A. (1971). Social learning theory. New York: General Learning Press.Google Scholar
  3. Barbalet, J. (2001). Emotion, social theory, and social structure: A macrosociological approach. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  4. Barbalet, J. (Ed.). (2002). Emotions and sociology. Oxford: Blackwell.Google Scholar
  5. Becker, G. S. (1981). A treatise on the family. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  6. Berhau, P., Lareau, A., & Press, J. E. (2011). Where families and children’s activities meet: Gen, meshing work, and family myths. In A. I. Garey & K. V. Hansen (Eds.), At the heart of work and family (pp. 43–60). New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press.Google Scholar
  7. Blair, S. L., & Lichter, D. T. (1991). Measuring the division of household labor: Gender segregation of housework among couples. Journal of Family Issues, 12, 91–113.Google Scholar
  8. Bourdieu, P. (1977). Outline of a theory of practice. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  9. Bourdieu, P. (1986). The forms of capital. In J. E. Richardson (Ed.), Handbook of theory of research for the sociology of education (pp. 241–258). New York: Greenwood.Google Scholar
  10. Bourdieu, P. (1992). The logic of practice. Stanford: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
  11. Bourdieu, P. (1996). On the family as a realized category. Theory, Culture, and Society, 13(3), 19–26.Google Scholar
  12. Bowlby, J. (1969). Attachment: Attachment and loss: Volume 1. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  13. Bradburn, N. M. (1969). The structure of psychological well-being. Chicago: Aldine.Google Scholar
  14. Bretherton, I., Fritz, J., Zahn-Waxler, C., & Ridgeway, D. (1986). Learning to talk about emotions: A functionalist perspective. Child Development, 57, 529–548.Google Scholar
  15. Brines, J. (1994). Economic dependency, gender, and the division of labor at home. American Journal of Sociology, 100, 652–688.Google Scholar
  16. Brody, L. R. (2000). The socialization of gender differences in emotional expression: Display rules, infant temperament, and differentiation. In A. H. Fischer (Ed.), Gender and emotion: Social psychological perspectives (pp. 24–47). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  17. Burgess, E. W. (1926). The family as a unity of interacting personalities. The Family, 7, 3–9.Google Scholar
  18. Burke, P. J. (2004). Identities and social structure: The 2003 cooley-mead award address. Social Psychology Quarterly, 67(1), 5–15.Google Scholar
  19. Burke, P. J., & Stets, J. E. (2009). Identity theory. NY: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  20. Cacioppo, J. T., Berntson, G. G., Sheridan, J. F., McKlintock, M. K. (2000). Multilevel integrative analyses of human behavior: Social neuroscience and the complementing nature of social and biological approaches. Psychological Bulletin, 126(6), 829–843.Google Scholar
  21. Cahill, S. E. (1999). Emotional capital and professional socialization: The case of mortuary science students (and Me). Social Psychology Quarterly, 62(2), 101–116.Google Scholar
  22. Calkins, S. D., & Hill, A. (2007). Caregiver influences on emerging emotion regulation: Biological and environmental transactions in early development. In J. J. Gross (Ed.), Handbook of emotion regulation (pp. 229–248). New York: Guilford.Google Scholar
  23. Campos, J. J., Mumme, D. L., Kermoian, R., & Campos, R. G. (1994). A functionalist perspective on the nature of emotion. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 59(2–3), 284–303.Google Scholar
  24. Cancian, F. M. (1987). Love in America: Gender and self-development. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  25. Ciarrochi, J., & Scott, G. (2006). The link between emotional competence and well-being: A longitudinal study. British Journal of Guidance and Counselling, 34(2), 231–243.Google Scholar
  26. Cole, P. M., Bruschi, C. J., & Tamang, B. L. (2002). Cultural differences in children’s emotional reactions to difficult situations. Child Development, 73, 983–996.Google Scholar
  27. Cole, P. M., & Tan, P. Z. (2007). Emotion socialization from a cultural perspective. In E. Grusec & P. D. Hastings (Eds.), Handbook of socialization: Theory and research (pp. 516–542). New York: Guilford.Google Scholar
  28. Collins, R. (1990). Stratification, emotional energy, and the transient emotions. In T. D. Kemper (Ed.), Research agendas in the sociology of emotions (pp. 27–57). Albany: State University of New York Press.Google Scholar
  29. Coltrane, S. (2000). Research on household labor: Modeling and measuring the social embeddedness of routine family work. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 62(4), 1208–1233.Google Scholar
  30. Cooley, C. H. (1902/1964). Human nature and social order. New York: Schocken Books.Google Scholar
  31. Cooley, C. H. (1909/1962). Social organization. New York: Schocken Books.Google Scholar
  32. Coverman, S. (1985). Explaining husbands’ participation in domestic labor. Sociological Quarterly, 26, 181–197.Google Scholar
  33. Dallaire, D. H., Pineda, A. Q., Cole, D. A., Ciesla, J. A., Jacquez, F., LaGrange, B., & Bruce, A. E. (2006). Relation of positive and negative parenting to children’s depressive symptoms. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 35(2), 313–322.Google Scholar
  34. Damasio, A. R. (1994). Descartes’ error: Emotion, reason, and the human brain. New York: G. P. Putnam.Google Scholar
  35. Daniels, A. K. (1987). Invisible work. Social Problems, 34(5), 403–415.Google Scholar
  36. Decety, J., & Ickes, W. (Eds.). (2009). The social neuroscience of empathy. Cambridge: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  37. Denham, S. A., Blair, K. A., DeMulder, E., Levitas, J., Sawyer, K., Auerbach-Major, S., & Queenan, P. (2003). Preschool emotional competence: Pathway to social competence? Child Development, 74(1), 238–256.Google Scholar
  38. Denham, S. & Kochanoff, A. T. (2002). “Parental Contributions to Preschoolers’ Understanding of Emotion.” Marriage & Family Review, 34(3 –4), 311 –343.Google Scholar
  39. Denham, S. A., Bassett, H. H., & Wyatt, T. (2007). The socialization of emotional competence. In J. E. Grusec & P. D. Hastings (Eds.), Handbook of socialization: Theory and research (pp. 614–637). New York: Guilford.Google Scholar
  40. Derryberry, D., & Rothbart, M. K. (2001). Early temperament and emotional development. In A. F. Kalverboer & A. Gramsbergen (Eds.), Brain and behavior in early development (pp. 967–990). Dordrecht: Kluwer.Google Scholar
  41. DeVault, M. L. (1991). Feeding the family: The social organization of caring as gendered work. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  42. DeVault, M. L. (1999). Comfort and struggle: Emotion work in family life. Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 561, 52–63.Google Scholar
  43. Doi, T. (1996). Forward. In D. W. Shwalb & B. J. Shwalb (Eds.), Japanese childrearing: Two generations of scholarship (pp. xv–xvii). New York: Guilford.Google Scholar
  44. Eisenberg, N., Cumberland, A., & Spinrad, T. L. (1998). Parental socialization of emotion. Psychological Inquiry, 9(4), 241–273.Google Scholar
  45. Eisenberg, N., Sadovsky, A., Spinrad, T. L., Fabes, R. A., Losaya, S. H., Valiente, C., Reiser, M., Cumberland, A., & Shepard, S. A. (2005). The relations of problem behavior status to children’s negative emotionality, effortful control and impulsivity: Concurrent relations and prediction of change. Developmental Psychology, 41(1), 193–211.Google Scholar
  46. Ekman, P. (1982). Emotions in the human face. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  47. Ekman, P., & Oster, H. (1979). Facial expressions of emotion. Annual Review of Psychology, 30, 527–554.Google Scholar
  48. Elias, N. (1939/2000). The civilizing process: Sociogenetic and psychogenetic investigations. Malden: Blackwell.Google Scholar
  49. Elliot, S., & Umberson, D. (2008). The performance of desire: Gender and sexual negotiation in long-term marriages. Journal of Marriage and Family, 70, 391–406.Google Scholar
  50. Epstein, S. (1973). The self-concept revisited or a theory of a theory. American Psychologist, 28, 404–416.Google Scholar
  51. Erickson, R. J. (1993). Reconceptualizing family work: The effect of emotion work on perceptions of marital quality. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 55, 888–900.Google Scholar
  52. Erickson, R. J. (2003). The familial institution. In L. T. Reynolds & N. J. Herman-Kinney (Eds.), The handbook of symbolic interaction (pp. 511–538). Walnut Creek, CA: AltaMira Press.Google Scholar
  53. Erickson, R. J. (2005). Why emotion work matters: Sex, gender, and the division of household labor. Journal of Marriage and Family, 67, 337–351.Google Scholar
  54. Ferree, M. M. (1976). Working-class jobs: Housework and paid work as sources of satisfaction. Social Problems, 23, 431–441.Google Scholar
  55. Ferree, M. M. (1990). Beyond separate spheres: Feminism and family research. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 52, 866–994.Google Scholar
  56. Ferree, M. M. (2010). Filling the glass: Gender perspectives on families. Journal of Marriage and Family, 72, 420–439.Google Scholar
  57. Freud, A. (1965). Normality and pathology in childhood: Assessments of development. London: Hogarths.Google Scholar
  58. Freud, S. (1961). Civilization and its discontents (Trans: J. Strachey). New York: NortonGoogle Scholar
  59. Froyum, C. M. (2010). The reproduction of inequalities through emotional capital: The case of socializing low-income black girls. Qualitative Sociology, 33, 37–54.Google Scholar
  60. Garey, A. I., & Hansen, K. V. (2011). At the heart of work and family: Engaging the ideas of Arlie Hochschild. New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press.Google Scholar
  61. Gecas, V. (1981). Contexts of socialization. In M. Rosenberg & R. H. Turner (Eds.), Social psychology: Sociological perspectives (pp. 165–199). New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  62. Geertz, H. (1959). The vocabulary of emotion: A study of Javanese socialization processes. Psychiatry, 22, 223–236.Google Scholar
  63. Gillies, V. (2006). Working class mothers and school life: Exploring the role of emotional capital. Gender and Education, 18(3), 281–293.Google Scholar
  64. Goffman, E. (1959). The presentation of self in everyday life. Garden City: Doubleday.Google Scholar
  65. Goffman, E. (1974). Frame analysis. New York: Harper and Row.Google Scholar
  66. Goodman, S. H., & Gotlib, I. H. (1999). Risk for psychopathology in the children of depressed mothers: A developmental model for understanding mechanisms of transmission. Psychological Review, 106(3), 458–490.Google Scholar
  67. Gordon, S. L. (1981). The sociology of sentiments and emotion. In M. Rosenberg & R. H. Turner (Eds.), Social psychology: Sociological perspectives (pp. 562–592). New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  68. Gordon, S. L. (1989). The socialization of children’s emotions: Emotional culture, competence and exposure. In C. Saarni & P. L. Harris (Eds.), Children’s understanding of emotion (pp. 319–349). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  69. Gordon, S. L. (1990). Social structural effects on emotion. In T. D. Kemper (Ed.), Research agendas in the sociology of emotions (pp. 145–179). Albany: State University of New York Press.Google Scholar
  70. Gottman, J. M., Katz, L. F., & Hooven, C. (1997). Meta-emotion: How families communicate emotionally. Mahwah: Lawrence Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  71. Gould, D. B. (2009). Moving politics: Emotion and ACT UP’s fight against AIDS. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  72. Grandey, A. A., Diefendorff, J. M., & Rupp, D. E. (Eds.). (2013). Emotional labor in the 21st century. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  73. Gross, J. J., & Thompson, R. A. (2007). Emotion regulation: Conceptual foundations. In J. J. Gross (Ed.), Handbook of emotion regulation (pp. 486–503). New York: Guilford.Google Scholar
  74. Halberstadt, A. G. (1986). Family socialization of emotional expression and nonverbal communication styles and skills. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 51, 827–836.Google Scholar
  75. Halberstadt, A. G., & Lozada, F. T. (2011). Emotion development in infancy through the lens of culture. Emotion Review, 3, 158–168.Google Scholar
  76. Hariri, A. R., & Forbes, E. E. (2007). Genetics of emotion regulation. In J. J. Gross (Ed.), Handbook of emotion regulation (pp. 110–132). New York: Guilford.Google Scholar
  77. Heise, D. R. (2007). Expressive order: Confirming sentiments in social actions. New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  78. Hochschild, A. R. (1975). The sociology of feelings and emotions. In M. Millman & R. Kanter (Eds.), Another voice (pp. 280–307). Garden City: Doubleday.Google Scholar
  79. Hochschild, A. R. (1979). Emotion work, feeling rules, and social structure. American Journal of Sociology, 85(3), 551–575.Google Scholar
  80. Hochschild, A. R. (1983). The managed heart: Commercialization of human feeling. Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  81. Hochschild, A. R.,& Machung A. (1989). The second shift. New York: Viking Books.Google Scholar
  82. Hochschild, A. R. (1990). Ideology and emotion management: A perspective and path for future research. In T. D. Kemper (Ed.), Research agendas in the sociology of emotions (pp. 117–142). Albany: State University of New York Press.Google Scholar
  83. Hochschild, A. R. (2003). The Commercialization of Intimate Life: Notes from Home and Work. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  84. Hochschild, A. R. (2011). Emotional life on the market frontier. Annual Review of Sociology, 37, 21–33.Google Scholar
  85. Hutter, M. (1985). Symbolic interaction and the study of the family. Studies in Symbolic Interaction, (Suppl 1), 117–152.Google Scholar
  86. Illouz, E. (1997). Consuming the romantic utopia: Love and the cultural contradictions of capitalism. Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  87. Izard, C., & Malatesta, C. (1987). Perspectives on emotional development: I. differential emotions theory of early emotional development. In J. Osofsky (Ed.), Handbook of infant development (pp. 494–554). New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  88. James, W. (1890). Principles of psychology. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston.Google Scholar
  89. Jasper, J. M. (1998). The emotions of protest: Affective and reactive emotions in and around social movements. Sociological Forum, 13(3), 397–424.Google Scholar
  90. Johnson, C. (1992). The emergence of the emotional self: A developmental theory. Symbolic Interaction, 15(2), 183–202.Google Scholar
  91. Kanter, R. M. (1977). Work and family in the United States: A critical review and agenda for research and policy. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.Google Scholar
  92. Kemper, T. D. (1978). A social interactional theory of emotions. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  93. Klimes-Dougan, B., Brand, A. E., Zahn-Waxler, C., Usher, B., Hastings, P. D., Kendziora, K., & Garside, R. B. (2007). Parental emotion socialization in adolescence: Differences in sex, age and problems status. Social Development, 16(2), 326–342.Google Scholar
  94. Kroska, A. (2003). Investigating gender differences in the meaning of household chores and child care. Journal of Marriage and Family, 65, 456–473.Google Scholar
  95. Lareau, A. (2011). Unequal childhoods: Class, race, and family life (2nd ed.). Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  96. Larsen, J. T., Berntson, G. G., Poehlmann, K. M., Tiffany, A. Ito, & Cacioppo, J. T. (2008). The psychophysiology of emotion. In M. Lewis, J. M. Haviland-Jones, & L. F. Barrett (Eds.), The handbook of emotions (Third Edition). New York: Guilford.Google Scholar
  97. Larson, R., & Richards, M. H. (1994). Divergent realities: The emotional lives of mothers, fathers, and adolescents. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  98. Lasch, C. (1977). Haven in a heartless world: The family beseiged. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  99. Lau, A. S., Fung, J., Want, S. W., Kang, S. M. (2009). Explaining elevated social anxiety among Asian Americans: Emotional attunement and a cultural double bind. Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology, 15(1), 77–85.Google Scholar
  100. Lazarus, R. S. (1991). Emotion and adaptation. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  101. Lazarus, R. S., & Folkman, S. (1984). Stress, appraisal, and coping. New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  102. Leavitt, R., & Power, M. B. (1989). Emotional socialization in the postmodern era: Children in day care. Social Psychology Quarterly, 52(1), 35–43.Google Scholar
  103. Levenger, G. (1964). Task and social behavior in marriage. Sociometry, 27, 433–448.Google Scholar
  104. Lewis, M. (2007). Early emotional development. In A. Slater & M. Lewis (Eds.), Introduction to infant development (pp. 216–232). New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  105. Lewis, M., Sullivan, M. W., Stanger, C., & Weiss, M. (1989). Self development and self-conscious emotions. Child Development, 60, 146–156.Google Scholar
  106. Lively, K. J. (2008). Emotional segues and the management of emotion by women and men. Social Forces, 87(2), 911–936.Google Scholar
  107. Lively, K. J. (2013). Social and cultural influencers: Gender effects on emotional labor at work and at home. In A. A. Grandey, J. M. Diefendorff, & D. E. Rupp (Eds.), Emotional labor in the 21st century: Diverse perspectives on emotion regulation at work (pp. 224–249). NY: Psychology Press/Routledge.Google Scholar
  108. Lively, K. J., & Heise, D. R. (2004). Sociological realms of emotional experience. American Journal of Sociology, 109(5), 1109–1136.Google Scholar
  109. Lizardo, O. (2004). The cognitive origins of bourdieu’s habitus. Journal for the Theory of Social Behaviour, 34(4), 375–401.Google Scholar
  110. Lois, J. (2010). The temporal emotion work of motherhood: Homeschoolers’ strategies for managing time shortage. Gender and Society, 24(4), 421–446.Google Scholar
  111. Lois, J. (2013). Home is where the school is: The logic of homeschooling and the emotional labor of mothering. New York: New York University Press.Google Scholar
  112. Lorde, A. (1984). Age, race, class, and sex: Women redefining difference. In Sister outsider: Essays and speeches (pp. 114–123). Berkeley: Crossing.Google Scholar
  113. Lovejoy, M. C., Graczyk, P. A., O.’Hare, E., & Neuman, G. (2000). Maternal depression and parenting behavior: A meta-analytic review. Clinical Psychology Review, 20, 561–592.Google Scholar
  114. Lutz, C. A., & White, G. M. (1986). The anthropology of emotions. Annual Review of Anthropology, 15, 405–436.Google Scholar
  115. Markus, H. R., & Kitayama, S. (1991). Culture and the self: Implications for cognition, emotion, and motivation. Psychological Review, 98(2), 224–253.Google Scholar
  116. Matsumoto, D. (2006). Are cultural differences in emotion regulation mediated by personality traits? Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 37(4), 421–437.Google Scholar
  117. Mauss, M. (1973). Techniques of the body. Economy and Society, 2(1), 70–88.Google Scholar
  118. Mead, G. H. (1909/1964). Social psychology as counterpart to physiological psychology. In A. J. Reck (Ed.), Selected writings: George herbert mead (pp. 94–104). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  119. Mead, G. H. (1934). Mind, self, and society. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  120. Mesquita, B., & Albert, D. (2007). The cultural regulation of emotion. In J. J. Gross (Ed.), Handbook of emotion regulation (pp. 486–503). New York: Guilford.Google Scholar
  121. Morelen, D., & Thomassin, K. (2013). Emotion socialization and ethnicity: An examination of practices and outcomes in African American, Asian American, and Latin American families. Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine, 86, 168–178.Google Scholar
  122. Nelson, J. A., O’Brien, M., Blankson, A. N., Calkins, S. D., & Keane, S. P. (2009). Family stress and parental responses to children’s negative emotions: Tests of the spillover, crossover, and compensatory hypotheses. Journal of Family Psychology, 23(5), 671–679.Google Scholar
  123. Nowotny, H. (1981). Austria: Women in public life. In C. F. Epstein & R. L. Coser (Eds.), Access to power: Cross-national studies of women and elites (pp. 147–156). London: George Allen and Unwin.Google Scholar
  124. O’Brien, M. (2008). Gendered capital: Emotional capital and mothers’ care work in education. British Journal of Sociology of Education, 29(2), 137–148.Google Scholar
  125. Oakley, A. (1974). The sociology of housework. New York: Random House.Google Scholar
  126. Parsons, T., & Bales, R. F. (1955). Family, socialization and interaction process. Glencoe: Free Press.Google Scholar
  127. Pearlin, L. I., Lieberman, M. A., Menaghan, E. G., & Mullan, J. T. (1981). The stress process. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 22, 337–356.Google Scholar
  128. Peterson, G. (2006). Cultural theory and emotions. In J. E. Stets & J. H. Turner (Eds.), Handbook on the sociology of emotions (pp. 114–134). New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  129. Pfeffer, C. A. (2010). ‘Women’s work’? Women partners of transgender men doing housework and emotion work. Journal of Marriage and Family, 72, 165–183.Google Scholar
  130. Plutchik, R. (1980). Emotion: A psychoevolutionary synthesis. New York: Harper and Row.Google Scholar
  131. Plutchik, R. (2003). Emotions and life: Perspectives from psychology, biology, and evolution. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.Google Scholar
  132. Pollak, L. H., & Thoits, P. A. (1989). Processes in emotional socialization. Social Psychology Quarterly, 52(1), 22–34.Google Scholar
  133. Reay, D. (2000). A useful extension of Bourdieu’s conceptual framework? Emotional capital as a way of understanding mothers’ involvement in their children’s education. The Sociological Review, 48, 568–585.Google Scholar
  134. Reay, D. (2004). Gendering Bourdieu’s concepts of capitals? Emotional capital, women, and social class. The Sociological Review, 52, 57–74.Google Scholar
  135. Reed-Danahay, D. (2005). Locating Bourdieu. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.Google Scholar
  136. Rheingold, H. L. (1969). The social and socializing infant. In D. A. Goslin (Ed.), Handbook of socialization theory and research (pp. 779–790). Chicago: Rand McNally.Google Scholar
  137. Ridgeway, C. (2006). Expectations states theory and emotion. In J. H. Turner & J. E. Stets (Eds.), Handbook of the sociology of emotions (pp. 347–367). New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  138. Ridgeway, C. (2011). Framed by gender: How gender inequality persists in the modern world. NY: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  139. Risman, B. (2004). Gender as social structure: Theory wrestling with activism. Gender and Society, 18(4), 429–450.Google Scholar
  140. Rogers, K. B., & Kavanagh, L. (2010). Bridging emotion research: From biology to social structure. Social Psychology Quarterly, 73, 333–334.Google Scholar
  141. Rothbaum, F., Pott, M., Azuma, H., Mihake, K., & Weisz, J. (2000). The development of close relationships in japan and the united states: Paths of symbiotic harmony and generative tension. Child Development, 71(5), 1121–1142.Google Scholar
  142. Saarni, C. (1999). The development of emotional competence. New York: Guilford.Google Scholar
  143. Schacter, S., & Singer, J. E. (1962). Cognitive, social and physiological determinants of emotional state. Psychological Review, 69, 379–399.Google Scholar
  144. Scheff, T. J. (2000). Shame and the social bond: A sociological theory. Sociological Theory, 18(1), 84–99.Google Scholar
  145. Scheff, T. J. (1990). Microsociology: Discourse, Emotion, and Social Structure. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  146. Schooler, C. (1996). Cultural and social-structural explanations of cross-national psychological differences. Annual Review of Sociology, 22, 323–349.Google Scholar
  147. Seery, B. L., & Crowley, M. S. (2000). Women’s emotion work in the family: Relationship management and the process of building father-child relationships. Journal of Family Issues, 21(1), 100–127.Google Scholar
  148. Shelton, B. A., & John, D. (1996). The division of household labor. Annual Review of Sociology, 22, 299–322.Google Scholar
  149. Shields, S. A. (1995). The role of emotion beliefs and values in gender development. In N. Eisenberg (Ed.), Review of personality and social psychology (pp. 212–232). Thousand Oaks: Sage.Google Scholar
  150. Shott, S. (1979). Emotion and social life: A symbolic interactionist analysis. American Journal of Sociology, 84, 1317–1334.Google Scholar
  151. Simon, R. W. (2007). Contributions of the sociology of mental health for understanding the social antecedents, social regulation, and social distribution of emotion. In W. R. Avison, J. D. McLeod, & B. A. Pescosolido (Eds.), Mental health, social mirror (pp. 239–274). New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  152. Simon, R. W., & Nath, L. E. (2004). Gender and emotion in the United States: Do men and women differ in self-reports of feelings and expressive behavior? American Journal of Sociology, 109(5), 1137–1176.Google Scholar
  153. Smith, D. (1993). The standard North American family: SNAF as an ideological code. Journal of Family Issues, 14(1), 50–65.Google Scholar
  154. Smith, H. W., & Nomi, T. (2000). Is Amae the key to understanding Japanese culture? Electronic Journal of Sociology, 5, 1. http://www.sociology.org/content/vol005.001/smith-nomi.html. Accessed 18 Aug 2013.
  155. Smith-Lovin, L., & Winkielman, P. (2010). The social psychologies of emotion: A bridge that is not too far. Social Psychology Quarterly, 73, 327–332.Google Scholar
  156. Stacey, C. L. (2011). The caring self. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.Google Scholar
  157. Stanley, H. M. (1895). Studies in the evolutionary psychology of feeling. New York: Macmillan.Google Scholar
  158. Stearns, C. Z., & Peter N. (1986). Anger: The struggle for emotional control in America’s history. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  159. Stets, J. E. (2003). Emotions and sentiments. In J. Delamater Handbook of social psychology (pp. 309–335). New York: Kluwer/Plenum.Google Scholar
  160. Stevens, D., Kiger, G., & Riley, P. J. (2001). Working hard and hardly working: Domestic labor and marital satisfaction among dual-earner couples. Journal of Marriage and Family, 63, 514–526.Google Scholar
  161. Stryker, S. (1959). Symbolic interaction as an approach to family research. Marriage and Family Living, 21, 111–119.Google Scholar
  162. Sullivan, M. W., & Lewis, M. (2003). Emotional expressions of young infants and children. Infants and Young Children, 16(2), 120–142.Google Scholar
  163. Thoits, P. A. (1996). Managing the emotions of others. Symbolic Interaction, 19(2), 85–109.Google Scholar
  164. Thoits, P. A. (2004). Emotion norms, emotion work, and the social order. In S. R. Manstead, N. Frijda, & A. Fischer (Eds.), Feelings and emotions (pp. 359–378). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  165. Thoits, P. A. (2010). Stress and mental health: Major findings and policy implications. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 51(S), S41–S53.Google Scholar
  166. Thompson, R. A., & Meyer, S. (2007). Socialization of emotion regulation in the family. In J. J. Gross (Ed.), Handbook of emotion regulation (pp. 249–268). New York: Guilford.Google Scholar
  167. Tingey, H., Kiger, G., & Riley, P. J. (1996). Juggling multiple roles: perceptions of working mothers. The Social Science Journal, 33(2), 183–191.Google Scholar
  168. Trentacosta, C. J., & Fine, S. E. (2009). Emotion knowledge, social competence, and behavior problems in childhood and adolescence: A meta-analytic review. Social Development, 19, 1–29.Google Scholar
  169. Tronick, E. Z. (1989). Emotions and emotional communication in infants. American Psychologist, 44(2), 112–119.Google Scholar
  170. Turner, J. H. (2007). Human emotions: A sociological theory. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  171. Turner, J. H., & Stets, J. E. (2006). Moral emotions. In J. H. Turner & J. E. Stets (Eds.), Handbook of the sociology of emotions (pp. 544–566). New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  172. Twiggs, J. E., McQuillan, J., & Ferree, M. M. (1999). Meaning and measurement: Reconceptualizing measures of the division of household labor. Journal of Marriage and Family, 61, 712–724.Google Scholar
  173. Von Scheve, C., & Luede, R. V. (2005). Emotion and social structures: Towards an interdisciplinary approach. Journal for the Theory of Social Behaviour, 35, 303–328.Google Scholar
  174. Wallace, D. M. (2007). ‘It’s a M-A-N Thang: Black male gender role socialization and the performance of masculinity in love relationships. The Journal of Pan African Studies, 7(1), 11–22.Google Scholar
  175. Ward, L. G., & Throop, R. (1992). Emotional experience in Dewey and Mead: Notes for the social psychology of emotion. Social Perspectives on Emotion, 1, 61–94.Google Scholar
  176. Wharton, A. S., & Erickson, R. J. (1993). Managing emotions on the job and at home: Understanding the consequences of multiple emotional roles. Academy of Management Review, 38(3), 457–486.Google Scholar
  177. Zahn-Waxler, C. (2010). Socialization of emotion: Who influences whom and how? New Directions for Child and Adolescent Development, 128, 101–109.Google Scholar
  178. Zahn-Waxler, C., & Radke-Yarrow, M. (1990). The origins of empathic concern. Motivation and Emotion, 14(2), 107–130.Google Scholar
  179. Zahn-Waxler C., Iannotti, R. J., Cummings, M. E., & Denham, S. (1990). Antecedents of problem behaviors in children of depressed mothers. Development and Psychopathology, 2, 271–291.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.University of AkronAkronUSA
  2. 2.University of North CarolinaChapel HillUSA

Personalised recommendations