The Need for Adaptation in Coastal Protection: Shifting from Hard Engineering to Managed Realignment
- 618 Downloads
Climate change is already affecting our lives. Scientific predictions influence government policies; these in turn affect the way we live as individuals and society. The way we live is greatly dependent on the natural environment. The ultimate consequence of climate change to society is that we cannot continue living the way we do because the environment around us is changing. Therefore, we are all compelled to adapt to the new conditions and become more resilient to change as individuals and communities. Climate change and environmental and financial concerns have led to a shift from the traditional ‘hold-the-line’ approach of coastal protection towards more flexible soft engineering options. Managed realignment is a relatively new soft engineering approach aiming to maximise environmental and socio-economic benefits by creating space for coastal habitats to develop. The natural adaptive capacity of coastal habitats (and the ecosystem services they provide) underpins the concept of managed realignment. This chapter describes the main drivers leading to the implementation of managed realignment and the multiple functions it is expected to provide.
KeywordsEcosystem Service Flood Risk Coastal Habitat Flood Risk Management Coastal Protection
- Dahl, T. E., & Stedman, S. M. (2013). Status and trends of wetlands in the coastal watersheds of the Conterminous United States 2004–2009 (p. 46). U.S. Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service and National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, National Marine Fisheries Service.Google Scholar
- Defra Flood Management Division. (2005). Coastal squeeze implications for flood management, the requirements of the European Birds and Habitats Directives. Defra Policy Guidance. https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/181444/coastalsqueeze.pdf. Accessed 3 Feb 2014.
- Esteves, L. S. (2013). Is managed realignment a sustainable long-term coastal management approach? Journal of Coastal Research, Special Issue 65(1), 933–938.Google Scholar
- French, P. W. (2004). Coastal and Estuarine Management. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
- Haines-Young, R. H., & Potschin, M. P. (2010). The links between biodiversity, ecosystem services and human well-being. In D. G. Raffaelli & C. L. J. Frid (Eds.), Ecosystem ecology: A new synthesis. Cambridge: BES ecological reviews s eries (pp. . 110–139). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change). (2013). Summary for policymakers. In T. F. Stocker, D. Qin, G.-K. Plattner, M. Tignor, S. K. Allen, J. Boschung, A. Nauels, Y. Xia, V. Bex, & P. M. Midgley (Eds.), Climate change 2013: The physical science basis. contribution of working group I to the fifth assessment report of the intergovernmental panel on climate change. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
- MacDonald, J. M., & Harris, N. (Ed.) (2013). Proceedings of the 8th Annual Elwha Nearshore Consortium Workshop (27 February 2013), Port Angeles, Washington. http://www.clallam.net/ccmrc/documents/ENC_2013_Proceedings.pdf. Accessed 10 Feb 2014.
- Maltby, E. (2006). Wetland conservation and management: Questions for science and society in applying the ecosystem approach. In: R. Bobbink, B. Beltman, J. T. A. Verhoeven, & D. F. Whigham (Eds.), Wetlands: Functioning, biodiversity conservation, and restoration. Ecological Studies, 191(2), 93–116.Google Scholar
- Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (2005). Ecosystems and human well-being: Wetlands and water—Synthesis. Washington: Island Press.Google Scholar
- Möller, I. and Spencer, T. (2002) Wave dissipation over macro-tidal saltmarshes: Effects of marsh edge typology and vegetation change. Journal of Coastal Research, Special Issue 36, 506–521.Google Scholar
- National Ocean Council 2013. National Ocean Policy Implementation Plan. http://www.whitehouse.gov/sites/default/files/national_ocean_policy_implementation_plan.pdf. Accessed 1 Feb 2014.Parliamentary Office of Science and Technology. (2009). Coastal management, Postnote, 342, p. 5. www.parliament.uk/briefing-papers/POST-PN-342.pdf. Accessed 7 Feb 2014.
- Spalding, M. D., McIvor, A. L., Beck, M. W., Koch, E. W., Möller, I., Reed, D. J., Rubinoff, P., Thomas, S., Tolhurst, T. J., Wamsley, T. V., van Wesenbeeck, B. K., Wolanski, E., Woodroffe, C.D. (2013). Coastal ecosystems: A critical element of risk reduction. Conservation Letters, 00, 1–9. doi: 10.1111/conl.12074.Google Scholar
- UK National Ecosystem Assessment. (2011). The UK national ecosystem assessment: Synthesis of the key findings. Cambridge: UNEP–WCMC.Google Scholar
- Yee, A. T. K., Ang, W. F., Teo, S., Liew, S. C., & Tan, H. T. W. (2010). The present extent of mangrove forests in Singapore. Nature in Singapore, 3, 139–145.Google Scholar