Advertisement

Leonid Assur (1878–1920)

  • Alexander EvgrafovEmail author
  • Denis Kozlikin
Chapter
Part of the History of Mechanism and Machine Science book series (HMMS, volume 26)

Abstract

Leonid Assur solved a great challenge. He devised a classification system of planar linkages with lower pairs based on the theory of mechanisms. This system turned out to be remarkably productive, as it described not only all of the hinge mechanisms known at that time, but also showed how to form the new ones. After Assur’s death, his ideas were further developed in the works of his fellow Russian and foreign researchers.

Keywords

Graphical Method Kinematic Chain Normal Type Assur Group Planar Mechanism 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Notes

Acknowledgments

The authors would like to thank the Fundamental Library at the St. Petersburg State Polytechnical University, the National Library in St. Petersburg, and also kindly thank Sergey Assur, Tatyana Raush and Nataliya Arefieva.

References

  1. Artobolevski II (1937) Theory of spatial mechanisms. Part 1 (in Russian). ONTI, Saint-Petersburg, Moscow 235 pGoogle Scholar
  2. Artobolevski II (1939) Structure, kinematics and kinetostatics of multi-link planar mechanisms (in Russian). ONTI, Moscow Saint-Petersburg, 232 pGoogle Scholar
  3. Artobolevski II, Bogolyubov AN (1971) Leonid Vladimirovich Assur (1878–1920) (in Russian). Nauka, Moscow, 264 pGoogle Scholar
  4. Artobolevski II, Dobrovolsky VV (1939) Structure and classification of mechanisms (in Russian). Publishing house of AS of the USSR, Moscow, Saint-Petersburg, 66 pGoogle Scholar
  5. Assur L (1906) About the question of the steam machines smoothness of movement (in Russian). In: The proceedings of Polytechnical Society of Empire Technical School, no 8, pp 341–352Google Scholar
  6. Assur L (1909a) Analogues of the accelerations and their appliance to dynamic analysis of the planar link mechanisms (in Russian). In: The proceedings of Saint-Petersburg Polytechnical Institute, Department of technical, physical and mathematical sciences, vol 9/2, pp 735–773Google Scholar
  7. Assur L (1909b) Basic attributes of analogues of the accelerations in analytical presentation (in Russian). In: The proceedings of Saint-Petersburg Polytechnical Institute, Department of technical, physical and mathematical sciences, vol 11/2. pp 317–338Google Scholar
  8. Assur L (1911) Velocity and acceleration vector diagrams of planar mechanisms (in Russian) Saint-PetersburgGoogle Scholar
  9. Assur L (1914a) Research of a planar linkages with lower pairs on the basis of their structure and classification. Part 1. Teaching about normal multi-arm chains and their role in the formation of mechanisms (in Russian). In: The proceedings of Saint-Petersburg Polytechnical Institute vol 20–21. An addition to the second chapter of the first part—Ibid. 1915, vol 24Google Scholar
  10. Assur L (1914b) Research of a planar linkages with lower pairs on the basis of their structure and classification. Part 2. Application of the teaching on normal chains to the general theory of mechanisms (in Russian). In: The proceedings of Saint-Petersburg Polytechnical Institute vol 21. An addition to the first chapter of the second part—Ibid., 1918, vol 24Google Scholar
  11. Assur L (1916) Geometrical construction schemes of some curve lines (in Russian) Saint-PetersburgGoogle Scholar
  12. Assur L (1952) Research of a planar linkages with lower pairs on the basis of their structure and classification. In: Artobolevski I (ed) (in Russian). Publishing house of AS of the USSRGoogle Scholar
  13. Assur L, Roerich K (1911) Graphical methods for determination of the moment of inertia of a flywheel (in Russian). Saint-PetersburgGoogle Scholar
  14. Baranov GG (1952) Classification, configuration, kinematics and kinetostatics of planar mechanisms with pairs of the first kind (in Russian) Materials of the workshop on the theory of machines and mechanisms, vol 2–46. pp 15–39Google Scholar
  15. Bouzakis KD, Mansour G, Mitsi S (2004) Position analysis in polynomial form of planar mechanism with an Assur group of class 4 including one prismatic joint. Mech Mach Theory 39:237–245CrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  16. Bouzakis KD, Mansour G, Mitsi S, Popescu I (2008) Position analysis in polynomial form of class-three Assur. Mech Mach Theory 43:1401–1415CrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  17. Bruevich NG (1935) Application of vector equations in the kinematics of planar mechanisms (in Russian). Materials of air force academy named after Zhukovsky over the 1934. Moscow, pp 52–98Google Scholar
  18. Calle G, Diaz A, Quintero HF (2001) Análisis cinemático de mecanismos planos a partir del análisis estructural según Assur, V Congreso Iberoamericano de Ingeniería Mecánica, Merida, Venezuela, pp 1231–1240Google Scholar
  19. Calle G, Durango S, Ruiz O (2010) Analytical method for the kinetostatic analysis of the second-class RRR Assur group allowing for friction in the kinematic pairs. J Braz Soc Mech Sci Eng 32(3):200–207CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Calle G, Díaz A, Hena E, Quintero H (2011) A novel graphical and analytical method for the kinematic analysis of fourth class Assur groups. Rev Fac Ing Univ Antioquia No 60:81–91Google Scholar
  21. Ceccarelli M (2004) Classifications of mechanisms over time. In: Proceedings of international symposium on history of machines and mechanisms, HMM2004. Kluwer, Dordrecht, pp 285–302Google Scholar
  22. Ceresole E, Fanghella P and Galletti C (1996) Assur’s Groups, AKCS, Basic Trusses, SOCS, etc.: Modular kinematics of planar linkages. In: Proceedings 1996n ASME DETC & CIE Conferences, 96-DETC/MECH-1027 (2002)Google Scholar
  23. Cheng WY (2005) The position analysis of Assur kinematic chain with five links. Mech Mach Theory 40:1015–1029CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Crossley FRE, Seshachar N (1971) Analysis of the displacements of planar Assur groups by computer. In: Proceedings of the 3 world congress on TMM. pp 71–82Google Scholar
  25. Dobrovolsky VV (1953) Theory of mechanisms (in Russian). MashGIZ, Moscow, p 472Google Scholar
  26. Dvornikov LT (2011) Bases of general classifications of mechanisms (in Russian). Theory Mech Mach 2:18–29Google Scholar
  27. Galletti C (1979) On the position analysis of Assur’s groups of high class. Meccanica 14–1:6–10CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Galletti C, Giannotti E (2009) Assur’s-groups-based simulation for teaching kinematics of planar Linkages. In: XIX congress Aimeta Italian Association for Theoretical and Applied Mechanics, Ancona, pp 145–147Google Scholar
  29. Ionesku TG (2003) Index-English. Mech Mach Theory 38:607–682CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Karlovskiy DA, Vishnevskiy SV, Semenova NS (2005) Program for structural analysis of mechanisms (in Russian). Theory Mech Mach 1:67–69Google Scholar
  31. Kolovsky MZ, Evgrafov AN, Semenov YuA, Slousch AV (2000) Advanced theory of mechanisms and machines. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, p 396CrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  32. Peisach EE (2007) Classification of planar Assur groups (in Russian). Theory Mech Mach 1:5–17Google Scholar
  33. Romaniak K (2007) Methodology of the Assur groups creation. In: 12th IFToMM World Congress, Besancon, France, pp 1–5Google Scholar
  34. Servatius B, Shai O, Whiteley W (2010a) Combinatorial characterization of the Assur graph from engineering. Eur J Comb 31–4:1091–1104CrossRefMathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  35. Servatius B, Shai O, Whiteley W (2010b) Geometric properties of Assur graphs. Eur J Comb 31–4:1105–1120CrossRefMathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  36. Shai O (2010) Topological synthesis of all 2d mechanisms through Assur graphs. In: Proceedings of the ASME 2010 international design engineering technical conferences & computers and information in engineering conference IDETC/CIE. Montreal, Quebec, Canada, pp 1727–1738Google Scholar
  37. Sun X-Q, Tang L (2009) Method and realization of computer-aided combination of Assur groups in conceptual design of planar linkage mechanisms. In: Dai JS, Zoppi M, Kong X (eds) Reconfigurable mechanisms and robots, pp 123–128Google Scholar
  38. Tereshin VA (2003) Graphic presentation of singular positions of all possible six links Assure groups (in Russian). Theory Mech Mach 2:15–16Google Scholar
  39. Tereshin VA (2004) L.V. Assur (in Russian). Theory Mech Mach 1:90–94Google Scholar
  40. Wohlhart K (2008) Robots based on Assur group A (3.5). In: Advances in robot kinematics: analysis and design editors, pp 165–175Google Scholar
  41. Zhang FS, Xu GN (2011) Kinematic analysis on multi-bar linkage of loader working device based on transformation theory of mechanism. J Adv Mater Res 421:287–292 Advanced Design Technology: ICAMMP 2011CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Theory of Mechanisms and Machines(SPbSPU) St. Petersburg State Polytechnical UniversitySt. PetersburgRussia

Personalised recommendations